To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 2 doses of dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX implant) for treatment of noninfectious intermediate or posterior uveitis. In this 26-week trial, eyes with noninfectious intermediate or posterior uveitis were randomized to a single treatment with a 0.7-mg DEX implant (n = 77), 0.35-mg DEX implant (n = 76), or sham procedure (n = 76). The main outcome measure was the proportion of eyes with a vitreous haze score of 0 at week 8. The proportion of eyes with a vitreous haze score of 0 at week 8 was 47% with the 0.7-mg DEX implant, 36% with the 0.35-mg DEX implant, and 12% with the sham (P < .001); this benefit persisted through week 26. A gain of 15 or more letters from baseline best-corrected visual acuity was seen in significantly more eyes in the DEX implant groups than the sham group at all study visits. The percentage of eyes with intraocular pressure of 25 mm Hg or more peaked at 7.1% for the 0.7-mg DEX implant, 8.7% for the 0.35-mg DEX implant, and 4.2% for the sham (P > .05 at any visit). The incidence of cataract reported in the phakic eyes was 9 of 62 (15%) with the 0.7-mg DEX implant, 6 of 51 (12%) with the 0.35-mg DEX implant, and 4 of 55 (7%) with the sham (P > .05). In patients with noninfectious intermediate or posterior uveitis, a single DEX implant significantly improved intraocular inflammation and visual acuity persisting for 6 months. Application to Clinical Practice Dexamethasone intravitreal implant may be used safely and effectively for treatment of intermediate and posterior uveitis. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00333814.