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      Lipidomics by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography


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          This review enlightens the role of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) in the field of lipid analysis. SFC has been popular in the late 1980s and 1990s before almost disappearing due to the commercial success of liquid chromatography (LC). It is only 20 years later that a regain of interest appeared when new commercial instruments were introduced. As SFC is fully compatible with the injection of extracts in pure organic solvent, this technique is perfectly suitable for lipid analysis and can be coupled with either highly universal (UV or evaporative light scattering) or highly specific (mass spectrometry) detection methods. A short history of the use of supercritical fluids as mobile phase for the separation oflipids will be introduced first. Then, the advantages and drawbacks of SFC are discussed for each class of lipids (fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, prenols, polyketides) defined by the LIPID MAPS consortium.

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          Most cited references63

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          The many faces of packed column supercritical fluid chromatography--a critical review.

          Packed column sub- and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is a versatile separation method: on the one hand the number of parameters acting on the quality of a separation is very large, and the effects of these parameters can be complex (and not always fully understood). But on another hand, due to numerous advantageous properties of CO2-based mobile phases, method development is a fast task. This paper is a review of the main features of SFC, focusing essentially on achiral separations. However, several fundamental aspects discussed here are also relevant to chiral SFC separations. This is not intended to be an extensive review, as the way to practice SFC has somewhat evolved with time. We rather wished to provide an expert opinion on the characteristics of the method, pointing at the sources of difficulty and displaying the wide possibilities that it offers. A large number of selected applications concerning several different areas are also presented.
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            Modern analytical supercritical fluid chromatography using columns packed with sub-2 μm particles: a tutorial.

            This tutorial provides an overview of the possibilities, limitations and analytical conditions of modern analytical supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using columns packed with sub-2 μm particles. In particular, it gives a detailed overview of commercially available modern SFC instrumentation and the detectors that can be employed (UV, MS, ELSD, FID, etc.). Some advice on the choice of the stationary phase dimensions and chemistries, the nature of the mobile phase (choice of organic modifier and additives) and its flow rate as well as the backpressure and temperature are also provided. Finally, several groups of potentially problematic compounds, including lipophilic compounds, hydrophilic substances and basic drugs, are discussed in detail. All these families of analytes can be resolved with SFC but require specific analytical conditions.
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              Metabolic profiling of lipids by supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

              This review describes the usefulness of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) for the metabolic profiling of lipids. First, non-targeted lipid profiling by SFC/MS is described. The use of SFC/MS allows for high-throughput, exhaustive analysis of diverse lipids, and hence, this technique finds potential applications in lipidomics. Development of a polar lipid profiling method with trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatization widens the scope of applicability of SFC/MS. SFC is a high-resolution technique that is suitable for non-targeted profiling aimed at the simultaneous analysis of many components. Next, targeted lipid profiling by SFC/MS is described. SFC is useful for the separation of lipids, such as carotenoids and triacylglycerols, which have numerous analogs with similar structures. In addition, SFC/MS shows the maximum efficiency for the target analysis of lipids in a biological sample that includes many matrices. Finally, a high-resolution, high-throughput analytical system based on SFC/MS is stated to be suitable for lipidomics because it is useful not only for the screening of lipid mixtures (as a fingerprint method) but also for the detailed profiling of individual components.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editors
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                17 June 2015
                June 2015
                : 16
                : 6
                : 13868-13884
                [1 ]CNRS, Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, UPR2301, Université Paris-Sud, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France; E-Mails: laurent.laboureur@ 123456cnrs.fr (L.L.); david.touboul@ 123456cnrs.fr (D.T.)
                [2 ]Institut Mondor de Recherche Biomédicale, INSERM, U955 (eq. 21), Hôpital Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 94010 Créteil, France
                [3 ]Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne, 94010 Créteil, France
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: mario.ollero@ 123456inserm.fr ; Tel.: +33-1-49-81-36-67.
                © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 20 March 2015
                : 28 May 2015

                Molecular biology
                supercritical fluid chromatography,mass spectrometry,lipid
                Molecular biology
                supercritical fluid chromatography, mass spectrometry, lipid


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