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      Chitosan-Based Composite Materials for Prospective Hemostatic Applications

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          Effective hemostasis is vital to reduce the pain and mortality of patients, and the research and development of hemostatic materials are prerequisite for effective hemostasis. Chitosan (CS), with good biodegradability, biocompatibility and non-toxicity, has been widely applied in bio-medicine, the chemical industry, the food industry and cosmetics. The excellent hemostatic properties of CS have been extensively studied. As a result, chitosan-based composite hemostatic materials have been emerging. In this review, the hemostatic mechanism of chitosan is briefly discussed, and then the progress of research on chitosan-based composite hemostatic materials with multiple forms such as films, sponges, hydrogels, particles and fibers are introduced. Finally, future perspectives of chitosan-based composite hemostatic materials are given. The objective of this review is to provide a reference for further research and development of effective hemostatic materials.

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          Biodegradable polymers as biomaterials

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            Antimicrobial properties of chitosan and mode of action: a state of the art review.

            Owing to its high biodegradability, and nontoxicity and antimicrobial properties, chitosan is widely-used as an antimicrobial agent either alone or blended with other natural polymers. To broaden chitosan's antimicrobial applicability, comprehensive knowledge of its activity is necessary. The paper reviews the current trend of investigation on antimicrobial activities of chitosan and its mode of action. Chitosan-mediated inhibition is affected by several factors can be classified into four types as intrinsic, environmental, microorganism and physical state, according to their respective roles. In this review, different physical states are comparatively discussed. Mode of antimicrobial action is discussed in parts of the active compound (chitosan) and the target (microorganisms) collectively and independently in same complex. Finally, the general antimicrobial applications of chitosan and perspectives about future studies in this field are considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Impact of hemorrhage on trauma outcome: an overview of epidemiology, clinical presentations, and therapeutic considerations.

              The world-wide impact of traumatic injury and associated hemorrhage on human health and well-being cannot be overstated. Twelve percent of the global disease burden is the result of violence or accidental injury. Hemorrhage is responsible for 30 to 40% of trauma mortality, and of these deaths, 33 to 56% occur during the prehospital period. Among those who reach care, early mortality is caused by continued hemorrhage, coagulopathy, and incomplete resuscitation. The techniques of early care, including blood transfusion, may underlie late mortality and long-term morbidity. While the volume of blood lost cannot be measured, physiologic and chemical measures and the number of units of blood given are readily recorded and analyzed. Improvements in early hemorrhage control and resuscitation and the prevention and aggressive treatment of coagulopathy appear to have the greatest potential to improve outcomes in severely injured trauma patients.

                Author and article information

                [1 ]Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, Guangdong, China; 17875128648@ (D.-Y.Z.); smelilst@ (S.-T.L.)
                [2 ]Agricultural Product Processing Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Zhanjiang 524001, Guangdong, China; puwangli@
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: huzhangqyx@ (Z.H.); sidongligdou@ (S.-D.L.); Tel.: +86-759-238-3300 (Z.H.)
                Mar Drugs
                Mar Drugs
                Marine Drugs
                04 August 2018
                August 2018
                : 16
                : 8
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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