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      TLR4 antagonist FP7 inhibits LPS-induced cytokine production and glycolytic reprogramming in dendritic cells, and protects mice from lethal influenza infection

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          Dysregulated Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 activation is involved in acute systemic sepsis, chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, and in viral infections, such as influenza infection. Thus, therapeutic control of the TLR4 signalling pathway is of major interest. Here we tested the activity of the small-molecule synthetic TLR4 antagonist, FP7, in vitro on human monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and in vivo during influenza virus infection of mice. Our results indicate that FP7 antagonized the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and MIP-1β) by monocytes and DCs (IC 50 < 1 μM) and prevented DC maturation upon TLR4 activation by ultrapure lipopolysaccharide (LPS). FP7 selectively blocked TLR4 stimulation, but not TLR1/2, TLR2/6, or TLR3 activation. TLR4 stimulation of human DCs resulted in increased glycolytic activity that was also antagonized by FP7. FP7 protected mice from influenza virus-induced lethality and reduced both proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in the lungs and acute lung injury (ALI). Therefore, FP7 can antagonize TLR4 activation in vitro and protect mice from severe influenza infection, most likely by reducing TLR4-dependent cytokine storm mediated by damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) like HMGB1.

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              Succinate is an inflammatory signal that induces IL-1β through HIF-1α.

              Macrophages activated by the Gram-negative bacterial product lipopolysaccharide switch their core metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Here we show that inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β but not tumour-necrosis factor-α in mouse macrophages. A comprehensive metabolic map of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages shows upregulation of glycolytic and downregulation of mitochondrial genes, which correlates directly with the expression profiles of altered metabolites. Lipopolysaccharide strongly increases the levels of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle intermediate succinate. Glutamine-dependent anerplerosis is the principal source of succinate, although the 'GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) shunt' pathway also has a role. Lipopolysaccharide-induced succinate stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, an effect that is inhibited by 2-deoxyglucose, with interleukin-1β as an important target. Lipopolysaccharide also increases succinylation of several proteins. We therefore identify succinate as a metabolite in innate immune signalling, which enhances interleukin-1β production during inflammation.

                Author and article information

                [1 ]CIRI, International Center for Infectiology Research, Université de Lyon , Lyon, France
                [2 ]Inserm, U1111 , Lyon, France
                [3 ]Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon , Lyon, France
                [4 ]Université Lyon 1, Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie , Lyon, France
                [5 ]CNRS, UMR5308 , Lyon, France
                [6 ]Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano-Bicocca , Piazza della Scienza, 2, 20126 Milano, Italy
                [7 ]Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland, School of Medicine , Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
                [8 ]Sigmovir Biosystems Inc. , Rockville, MD, USA
                Author notes
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                20 January 2017
                : 7
                Copyright © 2017, The Author(s)

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