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      Recent Advances in Zinc Oxide Nanostructures with Antimicrobial Activities

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          Abstract

          This article reviews the recent developments in the synthesis, antibacterial activity, and visible-light photocatalytic bacterial inactivation of nano-zinc oxide. Polycrystalline wurtzite ZnO nanostructures with a hexagonal lattice having different shapes can be synthesized by means of vapor-, liquid-, and solid-phase processing techniques. Among these, ZnO hierarchical nanostructures prepared from the liquid phase route are commonly used for antimicrobial activity. In particular, plant extract-mediated biosynthesis is a single step process for preparing nano-ZnO without using surfactants and toxic chemicals. The phytochemical molecules of natural plant extracts are attractive agents for reducing and stabilizing zinc ions of zinc salt precursors to form green ZnO nanostructures. The peel extracts of certain citrus fruits like grapefruits, lemons and oranges, acting as excellent chelating agents for zinc ions. Furthermore, phytochemicals of the plant extracts capped on ZnO nanomaterials are very effective for killing various bacterial strains, leading to low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. Bioactive phytocompounds from green ZnO also inhibit hemolysis of Staphylococcus aureus infected red blood cells and inflammatory activity of mammalian immune system. In general, three mechanisms have been adopted to explain bactericidal activity of ZnO nanomaterials, including direct contact killing, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and released zinc ion inactivation. These toxic effects lead to the destruction of bacterial membrane, denaturation of enzyme, inhibition of cellular respiration and deoxyribonucleic acid replication, causing leakage of the cytoplasmic content and eventual cell death. Meanwhile, antimicrobial activity of doped and modified ZnO nanomaterials under visible light can be attributed to photogeneration of ROS on their surfaces. Thus particular attention is paid to the design and synthesis of visible light-activated ZnO photocatalysts with antibacterial properties

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          Most cited references344

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          Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene.

          There are few phenomena in condensed matter physics that are defined only by the fundamental constants and do not depend on material parameters. Examples are the resistivity quantum, h/e2 (h is Planck's constant and e the electron charge), that appears in a variety of transport experiments and the magnetic flux quantum, h/e, playing an important role in the physics of superconductivity. By and large, sophisticated facilities and special measurement conditions are required to observe any of these phenomena. We show that the opacity of suspended graphene is defined solely by the fine structure constant, a = e2/hc feminine 1/137 (where c is the speed of light), the parameter that describes coupling between light and relativistic electrons and that is traditionally associated with quantum electrodynamics rather than materials science. Despite being only one atom thick, graphene is found to absorb a significant (pa = 2.3%) fraction of incident white light, a consequence of graphene's unique electronic structure.
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            The chemistry of graphene oxide.

            The chemistry of graphene oxide is discussed in this critical review. Particular emphasis is directed toward the synthesis of graphene oxide, as well as its structure. Graphene oxide as a substrate for a variety of chemical transformations, including its reduction to graphene-like materials, is also discussed. This review will be of value to synthetic chemists interested in this emerging field of materials science, as well as those investigating applications of graphene who would find a more thorough treatment of the chemistry of graphene oxide useful in understanding the scope and limitations of current approaches which utilize this material (91 references).
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              The antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles: present situation and prospects for the future

              Nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used to target bacteria as an alternative to antibiotics. Nanotechnology may be particularly advantageous in treating bacterial infections. Examples include the utilization of NPs in antibacterial coatings for implantable devices and medicinal materials to prevent infection and promote wound healing, in antibiotic delivery systems to treat disease, in bacterial detection systems to generate microbial diagnostics, and in antibacterial vaccines to control bacterial infections. The antibacterial mechanisms of NPs are poorly understood, but the currently accepted mechanisms include oxidative stress induction, metal ion release, and non-oxidative mechanisms. The multiple simultaneous mechanisms of action against microbes would require multiple simultaneous gene mutations in the same bacterial cell for antibacterial resistance to develop; therefore, it is difficult for bacterial cells to become resistant to NPs. In this review, we discuss the antibacterial mechanisms of NPs against bacteria and the factors that are involved. The limitations of current research are also discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                22 November 2020
                November 2020
                : 21
                : 22
                : 8836
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252000, China; liyuchao@ 123456lcu.edu.cn
                [2 ]Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
                [3 ]Department of Physics, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: liaocz@ 123456sustech.edu.cn (C.L.); aptjong@ 123456gmail.com (S.C.T.)
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0839-2099
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8686-0113
                Article
                ijms-21-08836
                10.3390/ijms21228836
                7700383
                33266476
                038bde8a-41ec-47d3-9cf2-45aba6e89dc0
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 12 October 2020
                : 19 November 2020
                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology
                semiconducting oxide,synthesis,heterostructure,antimicrobial activity,photocatalytic activity,free radicals,zinc ion,contact killing,phytocompounds,hemolysis

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