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      Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Patients with Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

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          Abstract

          It is known that many tubular proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), which causes 8–10% of the cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a protein expressed on tubular cells of which the production is markedly increased in response to harmful stimuli such as ischemia or toxicity. In the present study, serum and urinary NGAL levels were evaluated in 26 ADPKD subjects. Both levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls (sNGAL 174 ± 52 vs. 50 ± 27 ng/ml, p < 0.05; uNGAL 119 ± 42 vs. 7 ± 6 ng/ml, p < 0.005) and a close correlation was also found between these parameters and the residual renal function (sNGAL/GFR: r = –0.8, p = 0.006; sNGAL/Creatinine: r = 0.9, p = 0.007; uNGAL/GFR: r = –0.49, p < 0.05; uNGAL/Creatinine: r = 0.84, p < 0.001). Patients were further divided into two groups according to the cystic development assessed with echotomography; subjects with higher cystic growth (HCG) presented higher sNGAL and uNGAL levels with respect to others (sNGAL: 242 ± 89 vs. 88 ± 34 ng/ml, p < 0.05; uNGAL: 158 ± 45 vs. 73 ± 27 ng/ml, p < 0.05). The strict correlation between NGAL levels and residual renal function is perfectly in accord with recent studies on patients with other ESRD-associated diseases. We can hypothesize that tubular cells produce big quantities of NGAL as a consequence of increased apoptosis following chronic damage or as a compensatory response, similar to that observed in acute stress conditions (ischemia, toxicity ...). Finally, our last finding that patients with HCG showed higher levels of NGAL suggests that this protein could be also involved in the cyst growth process, as previously reported about epithelial and tumoral expansion.

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          Most cited references 15

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          The high molecular weight urinary matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity is a complex of gelatinase B/MMP-9 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Modulation of MMP-9 activity by NGAL.

          Detection of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities in the urine from patients with a variety of cancers has been closely correlated to disease status. Among these activities, the presence of a group of high molecular weight (HMW) MMPs independently serves as a multivariate predictor of the metastatic phenotype (). The identity of these HMW MMP activities has remained unknown despite their novelty and their potentially important applications in non-invasive cancer diagnosis and/or prognosis. Here, we report the identification of one of these HMW urinary MMPs of approximately 125-kDa as being a complex of gelatinase B (MMP-9) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Multiple biochemical approaches verified this identity. Analysis using substrate gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the 125-kDa urinary MMP activity co-migrates with purified human neutrophil MMP-9 x NGAL complex. The 125-kDa urinary MMP-9 x NGAL complex was recognized by a purified antibody against human NGAL as well as by a monospecific anti-human MMP-9 antibody. Furthermore, these same two antibodies were independently capable of specifically immunoprecipitating the 125-kDa urinary MMP activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the complex of MMP-9 x NGAL could be reconstituted in vitro by mixing MMP-9 and NGAL in gelatinase buffers with pH values in the range of urine and in normal urine as well. Finally, the biochemical consequences of the NGAL and MMP-9 interaction were investigated both in vitro using recombinant human NGAL and MMP-9 and in cell culture by overexpressing NGAL in human breast carcinoma cells. Our data demonstrate that NGAL is capable of protecting MMP-9 from degradation in a dose-dependent manner and thereby preserving MMP-9 enzymatic activity. In summary, this study identifies the 125-kDa urinary gelatinase as being a complex of MMP-9 and NGAL and provides evidence that NGAL modulates MMP-9 activity by protecting it from degradation.
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            Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin: A Novel Early Urinary Biomarker for Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity

            Background: Cisplatin is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents, but the risk of nephrotoxicity frequently hinders the use of higher doses to maximize its antineoplastic effects. The lack of early biomarkers has impaired our ability to initiate potential therapeutic or preventive interventions in cisplatin nephrotoxicity in a timely manner. In this study, we have explored the expression and urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic injury. Methods: Mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injections of 20 mg/kg (high dose) or 5 mg/kg (low dose) cisplatin. The expression of NGAL was measured in the kidney and urine by Western analysis and immunofluorescence, and compared to changes in serum creatinine and urinary N-acetyl-β- D -glucosaminidase (NAG). Results: Cisplatin resulted in tubule cell necrosis and apoptosis following the high dose, but not the low dose. By Western analysis, NGAL protein was rapidly induced in the kidney within 3 h of high-dose cisplatin. By immunofluorescence, NGAL was induced predominantly in proximal tubule cells in a punctate cytoplasmic distribution, reminiscent of a secreted protein. NGAL was easily detected in the urine by Western analysis within 3 h of cisplatin administration in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. By comparison, changes in urinary NAG or serum creatinine were not evident until 96 h after cisplatin. Using defined concentrations of purified recombinant NGAL, urinary NGAL excretion following cisplatin administration was quantified to be in the 20–80 ng/ml range. Conclusion: The results indicate that NGAL represents an early and quantitative urinary biomarker for cisplatin nephrotoxicity.
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              Kidney injury molecule-1: a tissue and urinary biomarker for nephrotoxicant-induced renal injury.

              Nephrotoxicity is a common side effect of therapeutic interventions, environmental insults, and exposure to toxicants in the workplace. Although biomarkers for nephrotoxicity are available, they often lack sensitivity and are not specific as indicators of epithelial cell injury. Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) is a type 1 membrane protein with extracellular immunoglobulin and mucin domains. The mRNA and protein for Kim-1 are expressed at very low levels in normal rodent kidney, but expression increases dramatically after injury in proximal tubule epithelial cells in postischemic rodent kidney and in humans during ischemic acute renal failure. To evaluate the utility of Kim-1 as a biomarker for other types of renal injury, we analyzed tissue and urinary expression in response to three different types of nephrotoxicants in the rat: S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-l-cysteine (TFEC), folic acid, and cisplatin. Marked increases in Kim-1 expression were confirmed by immunoblotting in all three models. The protein was shown to be localized to the proximal tubule epithelial cell by immunofluorescence. Furthermore, Kim-1 protein was detected in urine of toxicant-treated rats. The temporal pattern of expression in response to TFEC is similar to the Kim-1 expression pattern in the postischemic kidney. In folic acid-treated kidneys, Kim-1 is clearly localized to the apical brush border of the well-differentiated proximal tubular epithelial cells. After folic acid treatment, expression of Kim-1 is present in the urine despite no significant increase in serum creatinine. Cisplatin treatment results in early detection of urinary Kim-1 protein and diffuse Kim-1 expression in S3 cells of the proximal tubule. Kim-1 can be detected in the tissue and urine on days 1 and 2 after cisplatin administration, occurring before an increase in serum creatinine. The upregulation of expression of Kim-1 and its presence in the urine in response to exposure to various types of nephrotoxicants suggest that this protein may serve as a general biomarker for tubular injury and repair processes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2007
                July 2007
                13 June 2007
                : 27
                : 4
                : 373-378
                Affiliations
                aChair of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, and bDepartment of Pathology and Experimental Microbiology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
                Article
                103912 Am J Nephrol 2007;27:373–378
                10.1159/000103912
                17570904
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 26, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

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