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      Identification of two distinct synucleins from human brain.

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      Alzheimer Disease, genetics, Amino Acid Sequence, Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor, Base Sequence, Cerebral Cortex, anatomy & histology, chemistry, Cross Reactions, Hippocampus, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Molecular Sequence Data, Nerve Tissue Proteins, immunology, isolation & purification, RNA, Messenger, analysis, Sequence Analysis, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid, Synucleins, Tissue Distribution, alpha-Synuclein, beta-Synuclein, tau Proteins

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          Abstract

          Two abundant proteins of 140 and 134 amino acids were purified and sequenced from human brain. They were identified through their reactivity on immunoblots with a partially characterised monoclonal antibody that recognises tau protein in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The 140 amino acid protein is identical with the precursor of the non-A beta component of Alzheimer's disease amyloid which in turn is highly homologous to synuclein from Torpedo electroplaques and rat brain. The 134 amino acid protein is the human homologue of bovine phosphoneuroprotein 14; it is 61% identical in sequence to the 140 amino acid protein. The previously unrecognised homology between these two proteins defines a family of human brain synucleins. We refer to the 140 and 134 amino acid proteins as alpha-synuclein and beta-synuclein, respectively. Both synucleins are expressed predominantly in brain, where they are concentrated in presynaptic nerve terminals.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Use of avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) in immunoperoxidase techniques: a comparison between ABC and unlabeled antibody (PAP) procedures.

           S. Hsu,  L Raine,  H Fanger (1981)
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            Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding an unrecognized component of amyloid in Alzheimer disease.

            A neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) is a widespread amyloid deposition. We analyzed the entire amino acid sequences in an amyloid preparation and found, in addition to the major beta/A4-protein (A beta) fragment, two unknown peptides. We raised antibodies against synthetic peptides using subsequences of these peptides. These antibodies immunostained amyloid in neuritic and diffuse plaques as well as vascular amyloid. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that the immunostaining was localized on amyloid fibrils. We have isolated an apparently full-length cDNA encoding a 140-amino-acid protein within which two previously unreported amyloid sequences are encoded in tandem in the most hydrophobic domain. We tentatively named this 35-amino acid peptide NAC (non-A beta component of AD amyloid) and its precursor NACP. NAC is the second component, after A beta, identified chemically in the purified AD amyloid preparation. Secondary structure predictions indicate that the NAC peptide sequence has a strong tendency to form beta-structures consistent with its association with amyloid. NACP is detected as a M(r) 19,000 protein in the cytosolic fraction of brain homogenates and comigrates on immunoblots with NACP synthesized in Escherichia coli from NACP cDNA. NACP mRNA is expressed principally in brain but is also expressed in low concentrations in all tissues examined except in liver, suggesting its ubiquitous and brain-specific functions. The availability of the cDNA encoding full-length NACP should help to elucidate the mechanisms of amyloidosis in AD.
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              Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA encoding a core protein of the paired helical filament of Alzheimer disease: identification as the microtubule-associated protein tau.

              Screening of cDNA libraries prepared from the frontal cortex of an Alzheimer disease patient and from fetal human brain has led to isolation of the cDNA for a core protein of the paired helical filament of Alzheimer disease. The partial amino acid sequence of this core protein was used to design synthetic oligonucleotide probes. The cDNA encodes a protein of 352 amino acids that contains a characteristic amino acid repeat in its carboxyl-terminal half. This protein is highly homologous to the sequence of the mouse microtubule-associated protein tau and thus constitutes the human equivalent of mouse tau. RNA blot analysis indicates the presence of two major transcripts, 6 and 2 kilobases lon g, with a wide distribution in normal human brain. Tau protein mRNAs were found in normal amounts in the frontal cortex from patients with Alzheimer disease. The proof that at least part of tau protein forms a component of the paired helical filament core opens the way to understanding the mode of formation of paired helical filaments and thus, ultimately, the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease.
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                Journal
                8194594

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