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      Meat quality in fast-growing broiler chickens

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          Abstract

          During the past few decades there has been a notable increase in the demand for poultry meat due to its low cost, good nutritional profile and suitability for further processing. Moreover, current forecasts and projection studies have predicted that the expansion of the poultry market will continue in the future. This growing demand has led to progressive improvements in genetic selection to produce fast-growing broilers, inducing the appearance of several spontaneous, idiopathic muscle abnormalities along with an increased susceptibility to stress-induced myopathy. Such muscle abnormalities have several implications for the quality of fresh and processed products, as breast meat that is affected by deep pectoral myopathy is usually rejected due to its unacceptable appearance. In addition, pale, soft and exudative like meat has a low processing ability due to its reduced water holding capacity, soft texture and pale colour. Finally, the high incidence of abnormalities observed in chicken breast muscles such as white striping (characterised by superficial white striations) and wooden breast (characterised by pale and bulging areas of substantial hardness) impair both the appearance and technological traits of breast meat. This review evaluates the consequences of genetic selection on muscle traits and describes the relevance of major breast abnormalities on nutritional, technological, sensorial and microbial characteristics of raw and processed meat.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Carcass composition and yield of 1957 versus 2001 broilers when fed representative 1957 and 2001 broiler diets.

          The yield of carcass parts as well as levels of carcass fat, moisture, and ash were measured in the 1957 Athens-Canadian Randombred Control (ACRBC) and in the Ross 308 commercial broiler, when fed diets that were representative of those being fed during 1957 and 2001. The Ross 308 was used to represent 2001 commercial broilers. Comparisons of carcass weights of the Ross 308 on the 2001 diet versus the ACRBC on the 1957 diet showed they were 6.0, 5.9, 5.2, and 4.6 times heavier than the ACRBC at 43, 57, 71, and 85 d of age, respectively. Yields of hot carcass without giblets (fat pad included) were 12.3, 13.6, 12.2, and 11.1 percentage points higher for the Ross 308 than for the ACRBC at those ages. The yields of total breast meat for the Ross 308 were 20.0, 21.3, 21.9, and 22.2% and were 8.4, 9.9, 10.3, and 9.8 percentage points higher than for the ACRBC at those ages. Yields of saddle and legs for the Ross 308 broiler were approximately 31 to 32% over the four ages and were about 1.5 to 2% higher than for the ACRBC at the different ages. The Ross 308 averaged 13.7, 15.0, 18.6, and 18.5% whole carcass fat versus 8.5, 10.6, 12.7, and 14.0% for the ACRBC at the four ages. In conjunction with previous studies, the current data show that yield of broiler carcass parts has continued to increase over time and that genetics has been the major contributor to changes in yield.
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            Growth, livability, and feed conversion of 1957 versus 2001 broilers when fed representative 1957 and 2001 broiler diets

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              Pathological changes associated with white striping in broiler breast muscles.

              White striping is a condition in broiler chickens characterized grossly by the occurrence of white striations, seen parallel to the direction of muscle fibers, on broiler breast fillets and thighs. Based on visual evaluation of the intensity of white striping, breast fillets can be categorized into normal (NORM), moderate (MOD), and severe (SEV) categories. This study was undertaken to evaluate the details of changes in histology as well as proximate composition occurring in the fillets with respect to the 3 degrees of white striping. In experiment 1, representative breast fillets for each degree of white striping (n = 20) were collected from 45-d-old broilers, approximately 2 h postmortem. From each fillet, 2 skeletal muscle samples were obtained and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. To identify and differentiate the histological changes, slides were prepared and stained using hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's Trichrome, and Oil Red O stains. In experiment 2, samples with 3 degrees of white striping were collected from 57-d-old birds for conducting proximate analysis. Major histopathological changes observed in the MOD and SEV samples consisted of loss of cross striations, variability in fiber size, floccular/vacuolar degeneration and lysis of fibers, mild mineralization, occasional regeneration (nuclear rowing and multinucleated cells), mononuclear cell infiltration, lipidosis, and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. Microscopic lesions were visually scored for degeneration and necrosis, fibrosis, and lipidosis. The scale used to score the samples ranged from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). There was an increase (P < 0.05) in mean scores for degenerative or necrotic lesions, fibrosis, and lipidosis as the degree of white striping increased from NORM to SEV. The results from the histopathological study were supported by the findings from proximate analysis confirming that the fat and protein contents of muscle increased (P < 0.05) and decreased (P < 0.05), respectively, as the degree of white striping increased. In conclusion, the histopathological changes occurring in white striping indicate a degenerative myopathy that could be associated with increased growth rate in birds.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                applab
                World's Poultry Science Journal
                Worlds Poult. Sci. J.
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0043-9339
                1743-4777
                June 2015
                June 2015
                : 71
                : 02
                : 363-374
                Article
                10.1017/S0043933915000367
                © 2015

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