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      The systemic effect of PEG-nGO-induced oxidative stress in vivo in a rodent model

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          Abstract

          Oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in the pathology of certain human diseases. Scientists have developed great interest regarding the determination of oxidative stress caused after the administration of nano-graphene composites (PEG-nGO). Graphene oxide sheets (GOS) were synthesized via a modified Hummer's method and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The method of Zhang was adopted for cracking of GOS. Then nano-graphene oxide was PEGylated with polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEGylation of nGO was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV spectroscopy and TEM. The average size distribution of nGO and PEG-nGO was determined by using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Subsequently, an in vivo study measuring a marker for oxidative stress, namely lipid peroxides, as well as antioxidant agents, including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase was conducted. A comparison at different intervals of time after the administration of a dose (5 mg/kg) of PEG-nGO was carried out. An increase in free radicals and a decrease in free radical scavenging enzymes in organs were observed. Our results indicated that the treatment with PEG-nGO caused an increased OS to the organs in the first few hours of treatment. However, the liver completely recovered from the OS after 4 h. Brain, heart and kidneys showed an increased OS even after 4 h. In conclusion increased OS induced by PEG-nGO could be detrimental to brain, heart and kidneys.

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          Oxidative biomarkers to assess the nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress

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            Author and article information

            Contributors
            Role: Associate Editor
            Journal
            Beilstein J Nanotechnol
            Beilstein J Nanotechnol
            Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
            Beilstein-Institut (Trakehner Str. 7-9, 60487 Frankfurt am Main, Germany )
            2190-4286
            2019
            18 April 2019
            : 10
            : 901-911
            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan
            [2 ]Department of Physics and Astronomy, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
            [3 ]Department of Biochemistry, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
            Article
            10.3762/bjnano.10.91
            6541342
            Copyright © 2019, Ain et al.; licensee Beilstein-Institut.

            This is an Open Access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0). Please note that the reuse, redistribution and reproduction in particular requires that the authors and source are credited.

            The license is subject to the Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology terms and conditions: (https://www.beilstein-journals.org/bjnano)

            Categories
            Full Research Paper
            Nanoscience
            Nanotechnology

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