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      Potential protective properties of flax lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside

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          Abstract

          Lignans are a group of phytonutrients which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Flaxseed is the richest source of providing lignan precursor such as secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). This article reviews the studies relevant to experimental models in animals and humans demonstrating the possible nutraceutical actions of SDG to prevent and alleviate lifestyle-related diseases. A local and international web-based literature review for this project was carried out to provide information relating to the study. The major key word “ SDG” was selected to gather information using the electronic databases pertaining to the current state of flaxseed lignans composition, bioactive compounds, metabolism and to find out their role in terms of chemopreventive action. The extraction methods vary from simple to complex depending on separation, fractionation, identification and detection of the analytes. The majority of studies demonstrate that SDG interferes with the development of different types of diseases like cardiovascular, diabetic, lupus nephritis, bone, kidney, menopause, reproduction, mental stress, immunity, atherosclerosis, hemopoietic, liver necrosis and urinary disorders due to its various biological properties including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antihypolipidemic and neuroprotective effects. Moreover, SDG has a defending mediator against various cancers by modulating multiple cell signaling pathways. As discussed in this review, SDG has shown therapeutic potential against a number of human diseases and can be recommended for discerning consumers.

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          Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

          Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine has become a classic text in the field of free radical and antioxidant research since its first publication in 1985. <br> This latest edition has been comprehensively rewritten and updated (over 80% of the text is new), while maintaining the clarity of its predecessor. There is expanded coverage of isoprostanes and related compounds, mechanisms of oxidative damage to DNA and proteins (and the repair of such damage), the free radical theory of aging and the roles played by reactive species in signal transduction, cell death, human reproduction, and other important biological events. Greater emphasis has also been placed on the methods available to measure reactive species and oxidative damage (and their potential pitfalls), as well as the importance of antioxidants in the human diet. <br> This book is recommended as a comprehensive introduction to the field for students, clinicians and researchers, and an invaluable companion to all those interested in the role of free radicals in the life and biomedical sciences.
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            A review of the interaction among dietary antioxidants and reactive oxygen species.

            During normal cellular activities, various processes inside of cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Some of the most common ROS are hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide ion (O(2)(-)), and hydroxide radical (OH(-)). These compounds, when present in a high enough concentration, can damage cellular proteins and lipids or form DNA adducts that may promote carcinogenic activity. The purpose of antioxidants in a physiological setting is to prevent ROS concentrations from reaching a high-enough level within a cell that damage may occur. Cellular antioxidants may be enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase) or nonenzymatic (glutathione, thiols, some vitamins and metals, or phytochemicals such as isoflavones, polyphenols, and flavanoids). Reactive oxygen species are a potential double-edged sword in disease prevention and promotion. Whereas generation of ROS once was viewed as detrimental to the overall health of the organism, advances in research have shown that ROS play crucial roles in normal physiological processes including response to growth factors, the immune response, and apoptotic elimination of damaged cells. Notwithstanding these beneficial functions, aberrant production or regulation of ROS activity has been demonstrated to contribute to the development of some prevalent diseases and conditions, including cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The topic of antioxidant usage and ROS is currently receiving much attention because of studies linking the use of some antioxidants with increased mortality in primarily higher-risk populations and the lack of strong efficacy data for protection against cancer and heart disease, at least in populations with adequate baseline dietary consumption. In normal physiological processes, antioxidants effect signal transduction and regulation of proliferation and the immune response. Reactive oxygen species have been linked to cancer and CVD, and antioxidants have been considered promising therapy for prevention and treatment of these diseases, especially given the tantalizing links observed between diets high in fruits and vegetables (and presumably antioxidants) and decreased risks for cancer.
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              Visceral obesity: the link among inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +92.335.2020050 , imran@gcuf.edu.pk
                nazirahmad83@gmail.com
                faqir_65@yahoo.com
                mk.khan@gcuf.edu.pk
                zee_ft@hotmail.com
                nadeem1220@gmail.com
                shhussain@ksu.edu.sa
                Journal
                Nutr J
                Nutr J
                Nutrition Journal
                BioMed Central (London )
                1475-2891
                28 July 2015
                28 July 2015
                2015
                : 14
                : 71
                Affiliations
                [ ]Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Government College University, Faisalabad, 38000 Pakistan
                [ ]Department of Dairy Technology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
                [ ]Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                Article
                59
                10.1186/s12937-015-0059-3
                4517353
                26215288
                03a3dfe4-3503-4e17-8e42-545499d5c668
                © Imran et al. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 6 February 2015
                : 14 July 2015
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                flaxseed,processing,lignan,precursors,diet,therapy,maladies
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                flaxseed, processing, lignan, precursors, diet, therapy, maladies

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