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      Primary follicular lymphoma of the bladder mimicking inflammatory condition: Case report and review of the literature

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          Abstract

          Primary lymphoma of the bladder is rare and may present with nonspecific symptoms and infection. Primary follicular lymphoma of the bladder is extremely rare with only a dozen reported cases. We present one case clinically mimicking an inflammatory process. A 79 year-old woman presents with recurrent urinary tract infections, urinary incontinence and frequency. Cystoscopic examination demonstrated a raised but flat lesion, suspicious for inflammatory lesion. Biopsy revealed a diagnosis of follicular lymphoma, grade 1–2. The presentation of primary follicular lymphoma of the bladder may be nonspecific, therefore it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients with unremitting symptoms.

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          Lymphoid neoplasms of the urinary tract and male genital organs: a clinicopathological study of 40 cases.

          Lymphoid neoplasms of the urinary tract and male genital organs are relatively rare, comprising less than 5% of all primary extranodal lymphomas; only a handful of small case series and isolated case reports have been published describing their predominant sites and subtypes. We identified 40 patients with lymphoid neoplasms of the urinary tract and male genital organs. Hematoxylin and eosin slides and immunohistochemical stains were reviewed, and follow-up data were also obtained. Twenty-six of 40 cases (65%) were primary genitourinary lymphomas. Mean age at diagnosis was 56 years (range 4-86 years). Among renal, bladder, and ureter lymphomas, a male predominance was noted (1.6:1). The subtypes of the lymphoid neoplasms observed were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (17 cases, 43%); Burkitt lymphoma, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma, SLL/CLL, and follicular lymphoma (4 cases, or 10% each); B-cell ALL (2 cases, 5%); B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, plasmacytoma, polymorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, and peripheral T-cell lymphoma NOS (1 case, or 2.5% each). In most cases, the genitourinary tract was the site of initial presentation. Genitourinary tract lymphomas most commonly occurred in the kidney. B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas predominated, with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma being the most common subtype in the entire group. Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma was seen only in the kidney, rather than the bladder, where it is typically thought to be more common. Although this study confirms the predominance of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in extranodal sites, the findings also highlight the variety of lymphomas that may occur in the genitourinary tract. This diversity of subtypes affirms the importance of fully characterizing lymphomas by immunohistochemistry and other modalities, which are indispensable for accurate diagnosis.
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            Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

            Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB) is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18)(q21: 21). Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment.
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              Characterization and outcomes of local treatment for primary bladder lymphoma: A population-based cohort analysis

              Introduction: Primary bladder lymphoma (PBL) is rare, representing 0.2% of extranodal lymphoma and less than 1% of all tumors originating in the bladder. Since the initial description of the disease, low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma has been reported as the most common subtype while high-grade disease was thought to represent only 20% of the reported cases. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ninety five patients with PBL from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry from 1998-2010 were reviewed. Tumors were classified as high or low grade based on histologic subtype of lymphoma based on revised European-American Lymphoma classification system. Socio-demographic and clinical variables were reported, as well as survival outcome analyses using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to generate hazard ratios for risk factors associated with mortality. Results: Eighty-three patients (42.6%) with low-grade and 112 patients (57.4%) with high-grade bladder lymphoma were studied. There were no differences between the low and high-grade groups for socio-demographic or clinical variables. Median overall survival or patients with low-grade disease was 38 months versus 15 months for patients with high-grade disease (p< 0.001). Analysis demonstrated worse survival outcomes for patients with high-grade disease compared to low-grade disease (p< 0.001). On multivariable analysis, increasing age and high-grade disease were associated with worse disease specific mortality (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Patient with high-grade primary bladder lymphoma had worse survival outcomes compared to those with low-grade disease. While transurethral resection provides tissue for diagnosis, immunotherapy/chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment for bladder lymphoma. Consolidation chemotherapy has been recommended in young patients not achieving complete remission with immunotherapy/chemotherapy.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Urol Case Rep
                Urol Case Rep
                Urology Case Reports
                Elsevier
                2214-4420
                05 September 2019
                November 2019
                05 September 2019
                : 27
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, 6 Ohio Drive, Suite 202, New Hyde Park, NY, 11042, USA
                [b ]Department of Urology, Northwell Health, New Hyde Park, NY, 11042, USA
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author., Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 6 Ohio Drive, Suite 202, New Hyde Park, NY, 11042, USA. Nhaghi12@ 123456northwell.edu
                Article
                S2214-4420(19)30314-6 101006
                10.1016/j.eucr.2019.101006
                6737328
                © 2019 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Oncology

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