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      International Journal of Nanomedicine (submit here)

      This international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal by Dove Medical Press focuses on the application of nanotechnology in diagnostics, therapeutics, and drug delivery systems throughout the biomedical field. Sign up for email alerts here.

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      Effects of arginine–glycine–aspartic acid peptide-conjugated quantum dots-induced photodynamic therapy on pancreatic carcinoma in vivo


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          Quantum dots (QDs) conjugated with integrin antagonist arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD) peptides (QDs-RGD) are novel nanomaterials with a unique optical property: a high molar extinction coefficient. Previously, we have shown that QDs-RGD demonstrate a photodynamic therapy (PDT) effect as new photosensitizers for the pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 in vitro. Here, we investigate the application of QDs-RGD in mice bearing pancreatic tumors using PDT. To ensure that more photosensitizers accumulated in tumors, QDs-RGD were injected intratumorally. After selection of an adequate dosage for injection from analyses of biodistribution images captured by an IVIS system, PDT was initiated. Three groups were created according to different PDT procedures. In group 1, mice were injected with QDs-RGD intratumorally, and an optical fiber connected to a laser light was inserted directly into the tumor. Irradiation was sustained for 20 min with a laser light (630 nm) at 100 mW/cm 2. In group 2, the laser optical fiber was placed around, and not inserted into, tumors. In group 3, PDT was conducted as in group 1 but without injection of QDs-RGD. After 28 days of observation, tumors on the back of mice in group 1 grew slowly (V/V 0 =3.24±0.70) compared with the control groups, whose tumors grew quickly, and the mean V/V 0 reached 6.08±0.50 (group 2) and 7.25±0.82 (group 3). Histology of tumor tissues showed more necrotic tissues, more inflammatory cells, and less vascular tissue in the PDT group than those in the control groups. These results suggest that QDs-RGD-mediated PDT, with illumination using an optical fiber inserted directly into the tumor, can inhibit the growth of SW1990 tumors with high efficiency in nude mice.

          Most cited references48

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          Recent progress in pancreatic cancer.

          Pancreatic cancer is currently one of the deadliest of the solid malignancies. However, surgery to resect neoplasms of the pancreas is safer and less invasive than ever, novel drug combinations have been shown to improve survival, advances in radiation therapy have resulted in less toxicity, and enormous strides have been made in the understanding of the fundamental genetics of pancreatic cancer. These advances provide hope but they also increase the complexity of caring for patients. It is clear that multidisciplinary care that provides comprehensive and coordinated evaluation and treatment is the most effective way to manage patients with pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.
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            Beyond the Barriers of Light Penetration: Strategies, Perspectives and Possibilities for Photodynamic Therapy

            Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a photochemistry based treatment modality that involves the generation of cytotoxic species through the interactions of a photosensitizer molecule with light irradiation of an appropriate wavelength. PDT is an approved therapeutic modality for several cancers globally and in several cases has proved to be effective where traditional treatments have failed. The key parameters that determine PDT efficacy are 1. the photosensitizer (nature of the molecules, selectivity, and macroscopic and microscopic localization etc.), 2. light application (wavelength, fluence, fluence rate, irradiation regimes etc.) and 3. the microenvironment (vascularity, hypoxic regions, stromal tissue density, molecular heterogeneity etc.). Over the years, several groups aimed to monitor and manipulate the components of these critical parameters to improve the effectiveness of PDT treatments. However, PDT is still misconstrued to be a surface treatment primarily due to the limited depths of light penetration. In this review, we present the recent advances, strategies and perspectives in PDT approaches, particularly in cancer treatment, that focus on increasing the 'damage zone' beyond the reach of light in the body. This is enabled by a spectrum of approaches that range from innovative photosensitizer excitation strategies, increased specificity of phototoxicity, and biomodulatory approaches that amplify the biotherapeutic effects induced by photodynamic action. Along with the increasing depth of understanding of the underlying physical, chemical and physiological mechanisms, it is anticipated that with the convergence of these strategies, the clinical utility of PDT will be expanded to a powerful modality in the armamentarium for the management of cancer.
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              Nanocomposite-Based Photodynamic Therapy Strategies for Deep Tumor Treatment.

              Photodynamic therapy (PDT), as an emerging clinically approved modality, has been used for treatment of various cancer diseases. Conventional PDT strategies are mainly focused on superficial lesions because the wavelength of illumination light of most clinically approved photosensitizers (PSs) is located in the UV/VIS range that possesses limited tissue penetration ability, leading to ineffective therapeutic response for deep-seated tumors. The combination of PDT and nanotechnology is becoming a promising approach to fight against deep tumors. Here, the rapid development of new PDT modalities based on various smartly designed nanocomposites integrating with conventionally used PSs for deep tumor treatments is introduced. Until now many types of multifunctional nanoparticles have been studied, and according to the source of excitation energy they can be classified into three major groups: near infrared (NIR) light excited nanomaterials, X-ray excited scintillating/afterglow nanoparticles, and internal light emission excited nanocarriers. The in vitro and in vivo applications of these newly developed PDT modalities are further summarized here, which highlights their potential use as promising nano-agents for deep tumor therapy.

                Author and article information

                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove Medical Press
                05 April 2017
                : 12
                : 2769-2779
                Department of Gastroenterology, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Lei-Ming Xu, Department of Gastroenterology, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai 200092, People’s Republic of China, Tel/fax +86 21 2507 8999, Email leiming.xu@ 123456aliyun.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2017 Li et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Molecular medicine
                quantum dots,rgd peptides,pancreatic neoplasm,intratumoral injection,photodynamic therapy


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