Output from the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMN) is anorexigenic and is supported by the excitatory actions of leptin. The VMN is also highly sensitive to the orexigenic actions of Neuropeptide Y (NPY). We report that NPY robustly inhibits VMN neurons by hyperpolarizing them and decreasing their ability to fire action potentials. This action was mediated by Y 1 receptors coupled to the activation of GIRKs (G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels). Approximately 80% of VMN neurons expressing leptin receptors were sensitive to the actions of NPY, whereas 75% of NPY-sensitive neurons in VMN also responded to glucose by being uniformly inhibited by elevations in glucose. Interestingly, only ∼36% of NPY-sensitive, leptin receptor b-expressing neurons were also glucosensitive. We suggest that NPY inhibits VMN neurons that are excited by leptin, thereby arresting the anorexigenic tone exerted by VMN neurons. The results further suggest a dynamic interplay between anorexigenic and orexigenic neuromodulators within the VMN to directly affect energy balance.