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      Comparative evaluation of prophylactic single-dose intravenous antibiotic with postoperative antibiotics in elective urologic surgery

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          Unrestricted antibiotic use is very common in Iran. As a result, emergence of resistant organisms is commonplace. Antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery consists of a short antibiotic course given immediately before the procedure in order to prevent development of a surgical site infection. The basic principle of prophylaxis is to maintain effective concentrations of an antibiotic active against the commonest pathogens during the entire surgery.

          Materials and methods

          We prospectively investigated 427 urologic surgery cases in our department between August 2008 and September 2009 (Group1). As reference cases, we retrospectively reviewed 966 patients who underwent urologic surgery between May 2004 and May 2008 (Group 2) who were administered antibiotics without any restriction. Prophylactic antibiotics such as cefazolin were administered intravenously according to our protocol. Postoperative body temperature, peripheral white blood cell counts, urinalysis, and urine culture were checked.


          To judge perioperative infections, wound condition and general condition were evaluated in terms of surgical site infection, as well as remote infection and urinary tract infection, up to postoperative day 30. Surgical site infection was defined as the presence of swelling, tenderness, redness, or drainage of pus from the wound, superficially or deeply. Remote infection was defined as occurrence of pneumonia, sepsis, or urinary tract infection. Perioperative infection rates (for surgical site and remote infection) in Group 1 and Group 2 were nine of 427 (2.6%) and 24 of 966 (2.5%), respectively. Surgical site infection rates of categories A and B in Group 1 were 0 and two (0.86%), respectively, while those in Group 2 were 0 and five (0.92%), respectively. There was no significant difference in infection rates in terms of remote infection and surgical site infection between Group 1 and Group 2 ( P = 0.670). The amounts, as well as the prices, for intravenously administered antibiotics decreased to approximately one quarter.


          Our protocol effectively decreased the amount of antibiotics used without increasing perioperative infection rates. Thus, our protocol of prophylactic antibiotic therapy can be recommended as an appropriate method for preventing perioperative infection in urologic surgery.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee.

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            Best practice policy statement on urologic surgery antimicrobial prophylaxis.

            Antimicrobial prophylaxis is the periprocedural systemic administration of an antimicrobial agent intended to reduce the risk of postprocedural local and systemic infections. The AUA convened a BPP Panel to formulate recommendations on the use of antimicrobial prophylaxis during urologic surgery. Recommendations are based on a review of the literature and the Panel members' expert opinions. The potential benefit of antimicrobial prophylaxis is determined by patient factors, procedure factors, and the potential morbidity of infection. Antimicrobial prophylaxis is recommended only when the potential benefit outweighs the risks and anticipated costs (including expense of agent and administration, risk of allergic reactions or other adverse effects, and induction of bacterial resistance). The prophylactic agent should be effective against organisms characteristic of the operative site. Cost, convenience, and safety of the agent also should be considered. The duration of antimicrobial prophylaxis should extend throughout the period when bacterial invasion is facilitated and/or likely to establish an infection. Prophylaxis should begin within 60 minutes of the surgical incision (120 minutes for intravenous fluoroquinolines and vancomycin) and generally should be discontinued within 24 hours. The AHA no longer recommends antimicrobial prophylaxis for genitourinary surgery solely to prevent infectious endocarditis. Justifications and recommendations for specific antimicrobial prophylactic regimens for specific categories of urologic procedures are provided. The recommendations provided in this document, including specific indications and agents enumerated in the Tables, can assist urologists in the appropriate use of periprocedural antimicrobial prophylaxis.
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              Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery: an advisory statement from the National Surgical Infection Prevention Project.

               ,  Dale W. Bratzler,  P Houck (2005)
              In January 2003, leadership of the Medicare National Surgical Infection Prevention Project hosted the Surgical Infection Prevention Guideline Writers Workgroup meeting. The objectives were to review areas of agreement among the published guidelines for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis, to address inconsistencies, and to discuss issues not currently addressed. The participants included authors from most of the published North American guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis and several specialty colleges. The workgroup reviewed currently published guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis. Nominal group process was used to draft a consensus paper that was widely circulated for comment. The consensus positions of the workgroup include that infusion of the first antimicrobial dose should begin within 60 minutes before surgical incision and that prophylactic antimicrobial agents should be discontinued within 24 hours of the end of surgery. This advisory statement provides an overview of other issues related to antimicrobial prophylaxis including specific suggestions regarding antimicrobial selection.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                9 November 2010
                : 6
                : 551-556
                [1 ] Department of Urology, Kamkar Hospital, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran;
                [2 ] Department of Nephrology, Kamkar Hospital, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran;
                [3 ] Department of Health, Kamkar Hospital, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran;
                [4 ] Department of Urology, Moradi Hospital, School of Medicine, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Seyed M Moosavi Movahed, Department of Nephrology, Kamkar Hospital, School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran, Tel +98 91 2153 5223, Fax +98 25 1771 3473, Email moosavimovahed@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2010 Moslemi et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Research


                urologic surgery, surgical site infection, antibiotic prophylaxis, single dose


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