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      Overview of cytokines and nitric oxide involvement in immuno-pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases.

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          Abstract

          Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are complex disorders with undetermined etiology. Several hypotheses suggest that IBDs result from an abnormal immune response against endogenous flora and luminal antigens in genetically susceptible individuals. The dysfunction of the mucosal immune response is implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD. The balance between pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and IL-17A], anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13), and immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-10 and transforming growth factors β) is disturbed. Moreover, evidence from animal and clinical studies demonstrate a positive correlation between an increased concentration of nitric oxide (NO) and the severity of the disease. Interestingly, proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the up-regulation of inducible oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in IBD. However, anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines are responsible for the negative regulation of iNOS. A positive correlation between NO production and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, IL-12, and interferon-γ) were reported in patients with IBD. This review focuses on the role of cytokines in intestinal inflammation and their relationship with NO in IBD.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther
          World journal of gastrointestinal pharmacology and therapeutics
          Baishideng Publishing Group Inc.
          2150-5349
          2150-5349
          Aug 06 2016
          : 7
          : 3
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Imene Soufli, Ryma Toumi, Hayet Rafa, Chafia Touil-Boukoffa, Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, 16111 Algiers, Algeria.
          Article
          10.4292/wjgpt.v7.i3.353
          4986402
          27602236
          03b9f160-f561-46ef-b9ce-fea0a1003e05
          History

          Immuno-pathogenesis,Inducible nitric oxide synthase,Inflammatory bowel disease,Nitric oxide,Cytokines

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