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      Effects of an immunosuppressive treatment on the rat prostate

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          The aim of this study was to determine the influence of different combinations of immunosuppressive drugs on the morphology, ultrastructure, and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cytoskeleton proteins in the rat dorsolateral prostate. The studies were conducted on 48 male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into eight groups: a control group and seven experimental groups. For 6 months, the animals in the experimental groups were administered a combination of drugs including rapamycin (Rapa), cyclosporin A, tacrolimus (Tac), mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone (Pred), according to the standard three-drug regimens for immunosuppressive therapy used in clinical practice. An evaluation of the morphology and ultrastructure was conducted, and a quantitative evaluation of the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and desmin- and cytokeratin-positive cells with weak, moderate, and strong expression was performed. The combination of Rapa, Tac, and Pred caused the smallest morphological and ultrastructural changes in the rat prostate cells. In the case of rats whose treatment was switched to Rapa monotherapy, a decreased percentage of proliferating cells of both the glandular epithelium and the stroma was found. Decreases in body weight and changes in the expression of cytokeratin and desmin were observed in all the experimental rats. The combination of Rapa, Tac, and Pred would seem to be the most beneficial for patients who do not suffer from prostate diseases. Our results justify the use of inhibitors of the mammalian target of Rapa in the treatment of patients with prostate cancer. The changes in the expression of cytoskeleton proteins may be the result of direct adverse effects of the immunosuppressive drugs, which are studied in this article, on the structure and organization of intermediate filament proteins.

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              Reactive stroma as a predictor of biochemical-free recurrence in prostate cancer.

              Extensive scientific literature data point to reciprocal interactions between prostate stromal cells and prostate cancer cells that likely regulate tumor progression. To investigate whether these intratumoral-reactive stromal cells in human prostate cancer are predictive of survival, tumor stroma volume and specific stroma markers were quantitated by using tissue microarrays (index tumors of 847 patients), and the results were analyzed relative to the recurrence-free survival data set for these patients. Tumor tissue was evaluated with Masson's trichrome stains and by immunohistochemistry with antibody probes to smooth muscle alpha-actin, desmin, vimentin, pro-collagen type I, and calponin. The relative volume of intratumor stroma (5% stroma, grade 0; 5-15%, grade 1; 15-50%, grade 2; >50%, grade 3) and the expression index of stromal marker (staining intensity grade x percentage of positive cells per field) were quantitated and analyzed. Interpretable data were obtained from 545 patients. Statistical analysis of the survival data set showed that the volume of reactive stroma in the tumor was a significant predictor of disease-free survival. Stroma volume was most optimal as an independent predictor in tumors containing stroma, defined as Gleason 7 and lower grades. Of interest, tumors with either little to no stroma or tumors with abundant stroma each showed reduced recurrence-free survival. For specific stromal markers, reduced desmin and smooth muscle alpha-actin were hallmarks of cancer-associated reactive stroma relative to normal fibromuscular stroma. Quantitative analysis of desmin and smooth muscle alpha-actin expression showed both to be significant and independent predictors of recurrence-free survival. This is the first study to demonstrate that nonepithelial-reactive stroma elements in prostate cancer tumors can be used as prognostic indicators. These data also add to the concept that tumors are not purely epithelial and the tumor-reactive stroma must be considered an important biological component of the cancer.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                12 September 2016
                : 10
                : 2899-2915
                [1 ]Department of Histology and Developmental Biology, Pomeranian Medical University
                [2 ]Department of Nephrology, Transplantology and Internal Medicine, Pomeranian Medical University
                [3 ]Department of Physiology, Cytobiology and Proteomics, West Pomeranian University of Technology
                [4 ]Department of Physiology, Pomeranian Medical University
                [5 ]Department of Microbiology and Applied Biotechnology, West Pomeranian University of Technology
                [6 ]Department of Pathology, West Pomeranian Oncology Center
                [7 ]Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Marta Grabowska, Department of Histology and Developmental Biology, Pomeranian Medical University, 48, Żołnierska Street, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland, Tel +48 91 480 0908, Email martag@ 123456pum.edu.pl
                © 2016 Grabowska et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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