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      Involvement of Marinobufagenin in a Rat Model of Human Preeclampsia

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          Abstract

          Background: Preeclampsia is a potentially devastating disorder of hypertension in pregnancy for which there is currently no definitive treatment short of delivery. The bufadienolide, marinobufagenin (MBG), an inhibitor of Na<sup>+</sup>/K<sup>+</sup> ATPase, has been found to be elevated in extracellular fluid volume-expanded hypertensive patients, a condition similar to preeclampsia. Thus, these studies sought to examine the role of MBG in our rat model of preeclampsia. Methods and Results: Pregnant female rats were injected intraperitoneally with deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and given 0.9% saline as drinking water for the duration of their pregnancy. Urinary MBG was measured using a DELFIA immunoassay. Blood pressure was measured via the tail-cuff method. Injections of anti-MBG antibody were given intraperitoneally or intravenously to hypertensive pregnant rats. MBG was given intraperitoneally to pregnant rats. Uterine arterioles were dissected free and their diameters were measured before and after perfusion of MBG, ouabain, or digoxin. MBG was found to be elevated in the pregnant + DOCA + saline (PDS) rats compared to normal pregnant animals. In addition, when PDS rats were injected with anti-MBG antibody, there was a subsequent reduction in blood pressure. Administration of MBG in normal pregnant rats caused an elevation in blood pressure equivalent to the PDS model. Also, uterine vessel measurements showed an increased vasoconstrictive reactivity to MBG in the PDS animals vs. the normal pregnant controls; while no changes were observed with perfusion of digoxin or ouabain at the same concentration. Conclusion: These results suggest a relationship between MBG and a syndrome in rats resembling preeclampsia. Armed with these promising results, it would seem logical to further examine the role of MBG in human preeclampsia.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Identification and characterization of a ouabain-like compound from human plasma.

          The plasma membrane sodium-potassium pumps that regulate intracellular sodium in most animal cells have specific, high-affinity receptors for the digitalis glycosides and their aglycones. This has fostered speculation that there is an endogenous ligand. We have purified and structurally identified by mass spectroscopy an endogenous substance from human plasma that binds with high affinity to this receptor and that is indistinguishable from the cardenolide ouabain. This human ouabain-like compound (OLC) displaces [3H]ouabain from its receptor, inhibits Na,K-ATPase and ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake, and has cardiotonic actions quantitatively similar to commercial ouabain. Immunoreactive OLC was detected in the plasma of many mammals, and high concentrations were found in the adrenals. The circulating OLC may modulate intracellular Na+ and affect numerous Na+ gradient-dependent processes including intracellular Ca2+ and pH homeostasis in many tissues. Furthermore, altered circulating levels of OLC may be associated with the pathogenesis of certain forms of hypertension.
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            Essential hypertension: renin and aldosterone, heart attack and stroke.

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              Endogenous cardiac glycosides, a new class of steroid hormones.

               W Schoner (2002)
              The search for endogenous digitalis has led to the isolation of ouabain as well as several additional cardiotonic steroids of the cardenolide and bufadienolide type from blood, adrenals, and hypothalamus. The concentration of endogenous ouabain is elevated in blood upon increased Na(+) uptake, hypoxia, and physical exercise. Changes in blood levels of ouabain upon physical exercise occur rapidly. Adrenal cortical cells in tissue culture release ouabain upon addition of angiotensin II and epinephrine, and it is thought that ouabain is released from adrenal cortex in vivo. Ouabain levels in blood are elevated in 50% of Caucasians with low-renin hypertension. Infusion over several weeks of low concentrations of ouabain, but not of digoxin, induces hypertension in rats. A digoxin-like compound, which has been isolated from human urine and adrenals, as well various other endogenous cardiac glycosides may counterbalance their actions within a regulatory framework of water and salt metabolism. Marinobufagenin, for instance, whose concentration is increased after cardiac infarction, may show natriuretic properties because it inhibits the alpha1 isoform of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, the main sodium pump isoform of the kidney, much better than other sodium pump isoforms. In analogy to other steroid hormones, cardiotonic steroid hormones in blood are bound to a specific cardiac glycoside binding globulin. The discovery of ouabain as a new adrenal hormone affecting Na(+) metabolism and the development of the new ouabain antagonist PST 2238 allows for new possibilities for the therapy of hypertension and congestive heart failure. This will lead in turn to a better understanding of the disease on a physiological and endocrinological level and of the action of ouabain on the cellular level as a signal that is transduced to the plasma membrane as well as to the cell nucleus.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2005
                October 2005
                12 October 2005
                : 25
                : 5
                : 520-528
                Affiliations
                Departments of aMedicine, and bObstetricsand Gynecology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, La., and cLaboratory of Cardiovascular Science, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, Md., USA
                Article
                88461 Am J Nephrol 2005;25:520–528
                10.1159/000088461
                16179779
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 40, Pages: 9
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/88461
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

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