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      Leveraging Antimicrobial Stewardship in the Emergency Department to Improve the Quality of Urinary Tract Infection Management and Outcomes

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          Abstract

          Background

          The complex and fast-paced emergency department (ED) practice setting presents unique challenges that demand a tailored approach to antimicrobial stewardship. In this article, we describe the strategies applied by 1 institution’s antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) that were successful in improving prescribing practices and outcomes for urinary tract infection (UTI) in the ED.

          Methods

          Core strategies included pre-implementation research characterizing the patient population, antimicrobial resistance patterns, prescribing behavior, and morbidity related to infection; collaboration across multiple disciplines; development and implementation of a UTI treatment algorithm; education to increase awareness of the algorithm and the background and rationale supporting it; audit and feedback; and early evaluation of post-implementation outcomes.

          Results

          We observed a rapid change in prescribing post-implementation with increased empiric nitrofurantoin use and reduced cephalosporin use ( P < .05). Our elevation of nitrofurantoin to firstline status was supported by our post-implementation analysis showing that its use was independently associated with reduced 30-day return visits (adjusted odds ratio, 0.547; 95% confidence interval, 0.312–0.960). Furthermore, despite a shift to a higher risk population and a corresponding decrease in antimicrobial susceptibility rates post-implementation, the preferential use of nitrofurantoin did not result in higher bug-drug mismatches while 30-day return visits to the ED remained stable.

          Conclusions

          We demonstrate that an outcomes-based ASP can impart meaningful change to knowledge and attitudes affecting prescribing practices in the ED. The success of our program may be used by other institutions as support for ASP expansion to the ED.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Research electronic data capture (REDCap)--a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support.

          Research electronic data capture (REDCap) is a novel workflow methodology and software solution designed for rapid development and deployment of electronic data capture tools to support clinical and translational research. We present: (1) a brief description of the REDCap metadata-driven software toolset; (2) detail concerning the capture and use of study-related metadata from scientific research teams; (3) measures of impact for REDCap; (4) details concerning a consortium network of domestic and international institutions collaborating on the project; and (5) strengths and limitations of the REDCap system. REDCap is currently supporting 286 translational research projects in a growing collaborative network including 27 active partner institutions.
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            A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions.

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              American Geriatrics Society 2015 Updated Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults.

              (2015)
              The 2015 American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Beers Criteria are presented. Like the 2012 AGS Beers Criteria, they include lists of potentially inappropriate medications to be avoided in older adults. New to the criteria are lists of select drugs that should be avoided or have their dose adjusted based on the individual's kidney function and select drug-drug interactions documented to be associated with harms in older adults. The specific aim was to have a 13-member interdisciplinary panel of experts in geriatric care and pharmacotherapy update the 2012 AGS Beers Criteria using a modified Delphi method to systematically review and grade the evidence and reach a consensus on each existing and new criterion. The process followed an evidence-based approach using Institute of Medicine standards. The 2015 AGS Beers Criteria are applicable to all older adults with the exclusion of those in palliative and hospice care. Careful application of the criteria by health professionals, consumers, payors, and health systems should lead to closer monitoring of drug use in older adults.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Open Forum Infect Dis
                Open Forum Infect Dis
                ofid
                Open Forum Infectious Diseases
                Oxford University Press (US )
                2328-8957
                June 2018
                02 May 2018
                02 May 2018
                : 5
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacy, Huntington Hospital, Pasadena, California
                [2 ]University of Southern California, School of Pharmacy, Los Angeles, California
                [3 ]Department of Emergency Medicine, Huntington Hospital, Pasadena, California
                [4 ]Department of Infectious Diseases, Huntington Hospital, Pasadena, California
                Author notes
                Correspondence: A. Wong-Beringer, PharmD, FIDSA, University of Southern California, School of Pharmacy, 1985 Zonal Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90089 ( anniew@ 123456usc.edu ).
                Article
                ofy101
                10.1093/ofid/ofy101
                6016416
                © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reproduction and distribution of the work, in any medium, provided the original work is not altered or transformed in any way, and that the work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                Page count
                Pages: 8
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