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      Human Demodex Mite: The Versatile Mite of Dermatological Importance

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          Abstract

          Demodex mite is an obligate human ecto-parasite found in or near the pilo-sebaceous units. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are two species typically found on humans. Demodex infestation usually remains asymptomatic and may have a pathogenic role only when present in high densities and also because of immune imbalance. All cutaneous diseases caused by Demodex mites are clubbed under the term demodicosis or demodicidosis, which can be an etiological factor of or resemble a variety of dermatoses. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion about the etiological role of Demodex in various dermatoses can help in early diagnosis and appropriate, timely, and cost effective management.

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          Most cited references66

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          Rosacea: I. Etiology, pathogenesis, and subtype classification.

          Rosacea is one of the most common conditions dermatologists treat. Rosacea is most often characterized by transient or persistent central facial erythema, visible blood vessels, and often papules and pustules. Based on patterns of physical findings, rosacea can be classified into 4 broad subtypes: erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular. The cause of rosacea remains somewhat of a mystery. Several hypotheses have been documented in the literature and include potential roles for vascular abnormalities, dermal matrix degeneration, environmental factors, and microorganisms such as Demodex folliculorum and Helicobacter pylori. This article reviews the current literature on rosacea with emphasis placed on the new classification system and the main pathogenic theories. Learning objective At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should be acquainted with rosacea's defining characteristics, the new subtype classification system, and the main theories on pathogenesis.
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            Diagnostic and predictive value of horizontal sections of scalp biopsy specimens in male pattern androgenetic alopecia.

            Vertical sections of small scalp biopsy specimens are often inadequate for the diagnosis of male pattern androgenetic alopecia (MPAA). Quantitative analysis of follicular structures in horizontal sections can provide more information. Our purpose was to establish better diagnostic criteria by comparing horizontal and vertical sections of scalp biopsy specimens from MPAA and normal control subjects and to determine the predictive value of horizontal sections, by relating counts of follicular structures in MPAA to subsequent hair regrowth from topical minoxidil therapy. Paired 4 mm punch biopsy specimens were taken from 22 normal control subjects and 106 patients with MPAA, for horizontal and vertical sectioning. In horizontal sections, hair bulbs, terminal anagen, catagen and telogen hairs, telogen germinal units, and vellus hairs were counted, as were follicular units and stelae. The diagnosis of MPAA was confirmed by finding decreased terminal hairs and increased stelae and vellus hairs. The average horizontal section contained 22 terminal and 13 vellus hairs, a 1.7:1 ratio. Changes compatible with MPAA were found in most vertical and horizontal sections, but horizontal sections were required for follicular counts and showed terminal:vellus hair ratios diagnostic of MPAA in 67% of cases. Of 44 patients treated with topical minoxidil, five with less than 2 follicular structures/mm2 showed no hair regrowth, 32 with 2 to 4 follicular structures/mm2 showed regrowth in 72%, and seven with more than 4 follicular structures/mm2 showed regrowth in 86% of cases. In MPAA with no significant inflammation, regrowth occurred in 77% of cases, versus 55% in cases with significant inflammation. Horizontal sections of scalp biopsy specimens in MPAA provide more diagnostic information than vertical sections and appear to have a predictive value for hair regrowth.
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              Density of Demodex folliculorum in rosacea: a case-control study using standardized skin-surface biopsy.

              A standardized skin-surface biopsy (1 cm2) of the check was performed in 49 patients with rosacea [13 with erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea (ETR), three with squamous rosacea (SR), 33 with papulopustular rosacea (PPR)], and 45 controls. A mean density of 0.7 Demodex folliculorum/cm2 was found in controls, 98% of whom had less than five Demodex/cm2. When all clinical types of rosacea were considered collectively, the density of Demodex was significantly higher in patients with rosacea than in controls (mean = 10.8/cm2; P < 0.001). When the various clinical types of rosacea were considered separately, Demodex density was statistically significantly higher than in controls only in the PPR patients (mean = 12.8/cm2; P < 0.001). The same type of comparison was also made for three other groups of subjects--patients with isolated inflammatory papules (n = 4), rhinophyma (n = 3), and HIV infection (n = 21), respectively: in these groups, the Demodex density did not differ significantly from controls. The present study demonstrates a high density of D. folliculorum in PPR, and supports its pathogenic role in the papulopustular phase of rosacea. The study suggests that standardized surface biopsy could be a useful diagnostic tool for PPR, with a 98% specificity when Demodex density is higher than 5/cm2.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian J Dermatol
                Indian J Dermatol
                IJD
                Indian Journal of Dermatology
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0019-5154
                1998-3611
                Jan-Feb 2014
                : 59
                : 1
                : 60-66
                Affiliations
                [1] From the Department of Dermatology, STD and Leprosy, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Parvaiz Anwar Rather, Department of Dermatology, SMHS Hospital, Government Medical College, Srinagar - 190 010, Jammu and Kashmir, India. E-mail: parvaizanwar@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                IJD-59-60
                10.4103/0019-5154.123498
                3884930
                24470662
                03efd75b-a2b1-42aa-a1a1-a60f1e2f30ab
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Dermatology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Special Article

                Dermatology
                demodex,demodicosis,demodicidosis,ecto-parasite
                Dermatology
                demodex, demodicosis, demodicidosis, ecto-parasite

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