30
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Measurement and Clinical Significance of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Humans

      review-article

      1 , 1 , 2 , *

      Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

      Hindawi

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Oxidative stress is the result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. Biomarkers of oxidative stress are relevant in the evaluation of the disease status and of the health-enhancing effects of antioxidants. We aim to discuss the major methodological bias of methods used for the evaluation of oxidative stress in humans. There is a lack of consensus concerning the validation, standardization, and reproducibility of methods for the measurement of the following: (1) ROS in leukocytes and platelets by flow cytometry, (2) markers based on ROS-induced modifications of lipids, DNA, and proteins, (3) enzymatic players of redox status, and (4) total antioxidant capacity of human body fluids. It has been suggested that the bias of each method could be overcome by using indexes of oxidative stress that include more than one marker. However, the choice of the markers considered in the global index should be dictated by the aim of the study and its design, as well as by the clinical relevance in the selected subjects. In conclusion, the clinical significance of biomarkers of oxidative stress in humans must come from a critical analysis of the markers that should give an overall index of redox status in particular conditions.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 397

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Redox environment of the cell as viewed through the redox state of the glutathione disulfide/glutathione couple.

          Redox state is a term used widely in the research field of free radicals and oxidative stress. Unfortunately, it is used as a general term referring to relative changes that are not well defined or quantitated. In this review we provide a definition for the redox environment of biological fluids, cell organelles, cells, or tissue. We illustrate how the reduction potential of various redox couples can be estimated with the Nernst equation and show how pH and the concentrations of the species comprising different redox couples influence the reduction potential. We discuss how the redox state of the glutathione disulfide-glutathione couple (GSSG/2GSH) can serve as an important indicator of redox environment. There are many redox couples in a cell that work together to maintain the redox environment; the GSSG/2GSH couple is the most abundant redox couple in a cell. Changes of the half-cell reduction potential (E(hc)) of the GSSG/2GSH couple appear to correlate with the biological status of the cell: proliferation E(hc) approximately -240 mV; differentiation E(hc) approximately -200 mV; or apoptosis E(hc) approximately -170 mV. These estimates can be used to more fully understand the redox biochemistry that results from oxidative stress. These are the first steps toward a new quantitative biology, which hopefully will provide a rationale and understanding of the cellular mechanisms associated with cell growth and development, signaling, and reductive or oxidative stress.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Oxygen-derived free radicals in postischemic tissue injury.

            It is now clear that oxygen-derived free radicals play an important part in several models of experimentally induced reperfusion injury. Although there are certainly multiple components to clinical ischemic and reperfusion injury, it appears likely that free-radical production may make a major contribution at certain stages in the progression of the injury. The primary source of superoxide in reperfused reoxygenated tissues appears to be the enzyme xanthine oxidase, released during ischemia by a calcium-triggered proteolytic attack on xanthine dehydrogenase. Reperfused tissues are protected in a variety of laboratory models by scavengers of superoxide radicals or hydroxyl radicals or by allopurinol or other inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. Dysfunction induced by free radicals may thus be a major component of ischemic diseases of the heart, bowel, liver, kidney, and brain.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The thioredoxin antioxidant system.

               Arne Holmgren,  Jun Lu (2013)
              The thioredoxin (Trx) system, which is composed of NADPH, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and thioredoxin, is a key antioxidant system in defense against oxidative stress through its disulfide reductase activity regulating protein dithiol/disulfide balance. The Trx system provides the electrons to thiol-dependent peroxidases (peroxiredoxins) to remove reactive oxygen and nitrogen species with a fast reaction rate. Trx antioxidant functions are also shown by involvement in DNA and protein repair by reducing ribonucleotide reductase, methionine sulfoxide reductases, and regulating the activity of many redox-sensitive transcription factors. Moreover, Trx systems play critical roles in the immune response, virus infection, and cell death via interaction with thioredoxin-interacting protein. In mammalian cells, the cytosolic and mitochondrial Trx systems, in which TrxRs are high molecular weight selenoenzymes, together with the glutathione-glutaredoxin (Grx) system (NADPH, glutathione reductase, GSH, and Grx) control the cellular redox environment. Recently mammalian thioredoxin and glutathione systems have been found to be able to provide the electrons crossly and to serve as a backup system for each other. In contrast, bacteria TrxRs are low molecular weight enzymes with a structure and reaction mechanism distinct from mammalian TrxR. Many bacterial species possess specific thiol-dependent antioxidant systems, and the significance of the Trx system in the defense against oxidative stress is different. Particularly, the absence of a GSH-Grx system in some pathogenic bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Staphylococcus aureus makes the bacterial Trx system essential for survival under oxidative stress. This provides an opportunity to kill these bacteria by targeting the TrxR-Trx system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                OMCL
                Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
                Hindawi
                1942-0900
                1942-0994
                2017
                18 June 2017
                : 2017
                Affiliations
                1Department of Biochemical Sciences “A. Rossi Fanelli”, Sapienza University, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
                2Center for Food and Nutrition, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA-AN), Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome, Italy
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Antonio Ayala

                Article
                10.1155/2017/6501046
                5494111
                04033382-60f5-4097-834e-4ccfe995104f
                Copyright © 2017 Ilaria Marrocco et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Molecular medicine

                Comments

                Comment on this article

                Similar content 251

                Cited by 132

                Most referenced authors 5,482