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      Screening for Proteinuria and Chronic Kidney Disease Risk Factors in Kinshasa: A World Kidney Day 2007 Study

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          Background: Although screening programs for chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be of great value, these programs are not yet implemented in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This study focused on proteinuria and examined its prevalence in terms of the number needed to screen for the different risk factors of CKD. Such knowledge would guide the utility of population screening to prevent end-stage renal disease. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Kinshasa on the Second World Kidney Day. A sample of 3,018 subjects was interviewed and the following measurements were performed: blood pressure, body mass index, glycemia and urine protein. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of proteinuria. Results: The prevalence of proteinuria was 17.1% (95% CI 15.8–18.6). Other CKD risk factors identified were: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and metabolic syndrome. To identify 1 case of proteinuria, one would need to screen 4 persons with diabetes, 5 persons with hypertension, 4 subjects having metabolic syndrome, 5 persons aged ≥72 years and 9 persons without any of the conditions mentioned above. Age, overweight and diabetes were the strongest factors associated with proteinuria. Conclusions: This study indicates that proteinuria and traditional risk factors for CKD are very prevalent in Kinshasa. Realistic policies to stem these conditions should be a public health priority.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Chronic kidney disease as a global public health problem: approaches and initiatives - a position statement from Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes.

          Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly recognized as a global public health problem. There is now convincing evidence that CKD can be detected using simple laboratory tests, and that treatment can prevent or delay complications of decreased kidney function, slow the progression of kidney disease, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Translating these advances to simple and applicable public health measures must be adopted as a goal worldwide. Understanding the relationship between CKD and other chronic diseases is important to developing a public health policy to improve outcomes. The 2004 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference on 'Definition and Classification of Chronic Kidney Disease' represented an important endorsement of the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative definition and classification of CKD by the international community. The 2006 KDIGO Controversies Conference on CKD was convened to consider six major topics: (1) CKD classification, (2) CKD screening and surveillance, (3) public policy for CKD, (4) CVD and CVD risk factors as risk factors for development and progression of CKD, (5) association of CKD with chronic infections, and (6) association of CKD with cancer. This report contains the recommendations from the meeting. It has been reviewed by the conference participants and approved as position statement by the KDIGO Board of Directors. KDIGO will work in collaboration with international and national public health organizations to facilitate implementation of these recommendations.
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            Urinary albumin excretion predicts cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in general population.

            For the general population, the clinical relevance of an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is still debated. Therefore, we examined the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and all-cause mortality and mortality caused by cardiovascular (CV) disease and non-CV disease in the general population. In the period 1997 to 1998, all inhabitants of the city of Groningen, the Netherlands, aged between 28 and 75 years (n=85 421) were sent a postal questionnaire collecting information about risk factors for CV disease and CV morbidity and a vial to collect an early morning urine sample for measurement of urinary albumin concentration (UAC). The vital status of the cohort was subsequently obtained from the municipal register, and the cause of death was obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics. Of these 85 421 subjects, 40 856 (47.8%) responded, and 40 548 could be included in the analysis. During a median follow-up period of 961 days (maximum 1139 days), 516 deaths with known cause were recorded. We found a positive dose-response relationship between increasing UAC and mortality. A higher UAC increased the risk of both CV and non-CV death after adjustment for other well-recognized CV risk factors, with the increase being significantly higher for CV mortality than for non-CV mortality (P=0.014). A 2-fold increase in UAC was associated with a relative risk of 1.29 for CV mortality (95% CI 1.18 to 1.40) and 1.12 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.21) for non-CV mortality. Urinary albumin excretion is a predictor of all-cause mortality in the general population. The excess risk was more attributable to death from CV causes, independent of the effects of other CV risk factors, and the relationship was already apparent at levels of albuminuria currently considered to be normal.
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              Proteinuria and the risk of developing end-stage renal disease.

              Dipstick urinalysis for proteinuria and hematuria has been used to screen renal disease, but evidence of the clinical impact of this test on development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is lacking. We assessed development of ESRD through 2000 in 106,177 screened patients (50,584 men and 55,593 women), 20 to 98 years old, in Okinawa, Japan, who participated in community-based mass screening between April 1983 and March 1984. We used data from the Okinawa Dialysis Study Registry to identify ESRD patients. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the significance of proteinuria and hematuria on the risk of developing ESRD with confounding variables such as age, gender, blood pressure, and body mass index. A similar analysis was repeated in a subgroup of screened patients in whom serum creatinine data existed. During 17 years of follow-up, 420 screened persons (246 men and 174 women) entered the ESRD program. We identified a strong, graded relationship between ESRD and dipstick urinalysis positive for proteinuria; adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) was 2.71 (2.51 to 2.92, P < 0.001). Similar trends were observed after adding serum creatinine data. Compared with dipstick-negative proteinuria, adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) of proteinuria (1+) was 1.93 (1.53 to 2.41, P < 0.001) in men and 2.42 (1.91 to 3.06, P < 0.001) in women. Proteinuria was a strong, independent predictor of ESRD in a mass screening setting. Even a slight increase in proteinuria was an independent risk factor for ESRD. Therefore, asymptomatic proteinuria warrants further work-up and intervention.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                November 2008
                31 October 2008
                : 110
                : 4
                : c220-c228
                aNephrology Unit, University of Kinshasa, bSaint Joseph Hospital of Kinshasa and cMedical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, School of Public Health, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; dDivision of Nephrology/Transplantation, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium
                167869 Nephron Clin Pract 2008;110:c220
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 43, Pages: 1
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