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      Pulse Wave Velocity in Atherosclerosis

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          Abstract

          Early detection of subclinical atherosclerosis is important to reduce patients' cardiovascular risk. However, current diagnostic strategy focusing on traditional risk factors or using risk scoring is not satisfactory. Non-invasive imaging tools also have limitations such as cost, time, radiation hazard, renal toxicity, and requirement for specialized techniques or instruments. There is a close interaction between arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis. Increased luminal pressure and shear stress by arterial stiffening causes endothelial dysfunction, accelerates the formation of atheroma, and stimulates excessive collagen production and deposition in the arterial wall, leading to the progression of atherosclerosis. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), the most widely used measure of arterial stiffness, has emerged as a useful tool for the diagnosis and risk stratification of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The measurement of PWV is simple, non-invasive, and reproducible. There have been many clinical studies and meta-analyses showing the association between PWV and coronary/cerebral/carotid atherosclerosis. More importantly, longitudinal studies have shown that PWV is a significant risk factor for future CVD independent of well-known cardiovascular risk factors. The measurement of PWV may be a useful tool to select subjects at high risk of developing subclinical atherosclerosis or CVD especially in mass screening.

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          Most cited references 73

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          Validity, reproducibility, and clinical significance of noninvasive brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity measurement.

          The present study was conducted to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of noninvasive brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) measurements and to examine the alteration of baPWV in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Simultaneous recordings of baPWV by a simple, noninvasive method and aortic pulse wave velosity (PWV) using a catheter tip with pressure manometer were performed in 41 patients with CAD, vasospastic angina, or cardiomyopathy. In 32 subjects (15 controls and 17 patients with CAD), baPWV was recorded independently by two observers in a random manner. In 55 subjects (14 controls and 41 patients with CAD), baPWV was recorded twice by a single observer on different days. baPWV were compared among 172 patients with CAD (aged 62 +/- 8 years); 655 age-matched patients without CAD but with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia; and 595 age-matched healthy subjects without these risk factors. baPWV correlated well with aortic PWV (r=0.87, p<0.01). Pearson's correlation coefficients of interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility were r=0.98 and r=0.87, respectively. The corresponding coefficients of variation were 8.4% and 10.0%. baPWV were significantly higher in CAD patients than in non-CAD patients with risk factors, for both genders (p<0.01). In addition, baPWV were higher in non-CAD patients with risk factors than in healthy subjects without risk factors. Thus, the validity and reproducibility of baPWV measurements are considerably high, and this method seems to be an acceptable marker reflecting vascular damages. baPWV measured by this simple, noninvasive method is suitable for screening vascular damages in a large population.
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            Aortic pulse-wave velocity and its relationship to mortality in diabetes and glucose intolerance: an integrated index of vascular function?

            Arterial distensibility measures, generally from pulse-wave velocity (PWV), are widely used with little knowledge of relationships to patient outcome. We tested whether aortic PWV predicts cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes and glucose-tolerance-tested (GTT) multiethnic population samples. Participants were randomly sampled from (1) a type 2 diabetes outpatient clinic and (2) primary care population registers, from which nondiabetic control subjects were given a GTT. Brachial blood pressures and Doppler-derived aortic PWV were measured. Mortality data over 10 years' follow-up were obtained. At any level of systolic blood pressure (SBP), aortic PWV was greater in subjects with diabetes than in controls. Mortality risk doubled in subjects with diabetes (hazard ratio 2.34, 95% CI 1.5 to 3.74) and in those with glucose intolerance (2.12, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.0) compared with controls. For all groups combined, age, sex, and SBP predicted mortality; the addition of PWV independently predicted all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio 1.08, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.14 for each 1 m/s increase) but displaced SBP. Glucose tolerance status and smoking were other independent contributors, with African-Caribbeans experiencing reduced mortality risk (hazard ratio 0.41, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.69). Aortic PWV is a powerful independent predictor of mortality in both diabetes and GTT population samples. In displacing SBP as a prognostic factor, aortic PWV is probably further along the causal pathway for arterial disease and may represent a useful integrated index of vascular status and hence cardiovascular risk.
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              Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of primary coronary events in hypertensive patients: a longitudinal study.

              Arterial stiffness may predict coronary heart disease beyond classic risk factors. In a longitudinal study, we assessed the predictive value of arterial stiffness on coronary heart disease in patients with essential hypertension and without known clinical cardiovascular disease. Aortic stiffness was determined from carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity at baseline in 1045 hypertensives. The risk assessment of coronary heart disease was made by calculating the Framingham risk score according to the categories of gender, age, blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes, and smoking. Mean age at entry was 51 years, and mean follow-up was 5.7 years. Coronary events (fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and angina pectoris) and all cardiovascular events served as outcome variables in Cox proportional-hazard regression models. Fifty-three coronary events and 97 total cardiovascular events occurred. In univariate analysis, the relative risk of follow-up coronary event or any cardiovascular event increased with increasing level of pulse wave velocity; for 1 SD, ie, 3.5 m/s, relatives risks were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.82; P<0.01) and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.70; P<0.001), respectively. Framingham score significantly predicted the occurrence of coronary and all cardiovascular events in this population (P<0.01 and P<0.0001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, pulse wave velocity remained significantly associated with the occurrence of coronary event after adjustment either of Framingham score (for 3.5 m/s: relative risk, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.79; P=0.039) or classic risk factors (for 3.5 m/s: relative risk, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.79; P=0.01). Parallel results were observed for all cardiovascular events. This study provides the first direct evidence in a longitudinal study that aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of primary coronary events in patients with essential hypertension.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Cardiovasc Med
                Front Cardiovasc Med
                Front. Cardiovasc. Med.
                Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2297-055X
                09 April 2019
                2019
                : 6
                Affiliations
                Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine , Seoul, South Korea
                Author notes

                Edited by: Ailin Barseghian, University of California, Irvine, United States

                Reviewed by: Teresa Padro, Sant Pau Institute for Biomedical Research, Spain; Jürgen Bernhagen, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany

                *Correspondence: Sang-Hyun Kim shkimmd@ 123456snu.ac.kr

                This article was submitted to Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Prevention, a section of the journal Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine

                Article
                10.3389/fcvm.2019.00041
                6465321
                Copyright © 2019 Kim and Kim.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 112, Pages: 13, Words: 9805
                Categories
                Cardiovascular Medicine
                Review

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