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      Mechanistic Basis of Antimicrobial Actions of Silver Nanoparticles

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          Abstract

          Multidrug resistance of the pathogenic microorganisms to the antimicrobial drugs has become a major impediment toward successful diagnosis and management of infectious diseases. Recent advancements in nanotechnology-based medicines have opened new horizons for combating multidrug resistance in microorganisms. In particular, the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potent antibacterial agent has received much attention. The most critical physico-chemical parameters that affect the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs include size, shape, surface charge, concentration and colloidal state. AgNPs exhibits their antimicrobial potential through multifaceted mechanisms. AgNPs adhesion to microbial cells, penetration inside the cells, ROS and free radical generation, and modulation of microbial signal transduction pathways have been recognized as the most prominent modes of antimicrobial action. On the other side, AgNPs exposure to human cells induces cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and inflammatory response in human cells in a cell-type dependent manner. This has raised concerns regarding use of AgNPs in therapeutics and drug delivery. We have summarized the emerging endeavors that address current challenges in relation to safe use of AgNPs in therapeutics and drug delivery platforms. Based on research done so far, we believe that AgNPs can be engineered so as to increase their efficacy, stability, specificity, biosafety and biocompatibility. In this regard, three perspectives research directions have been suggested that include (1) synthesizing AgNPs with controlled physico-chemical properties, (2) examining microbial development of resistance toward AgNPs, and (3) ascertaining the susceptibility of cytoxicity, genotoxicity, and inflammatory response to human cells upon AgNPs exposure.

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          Most cited references 118

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          Chemistry and properties of nanocrystals of different shapes.

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            Monodisperse FePt nanoparticles and ferromagnetic FePt nanocrystal superlattices

            Synthesis of monodisperse iron-platinum (FePt) nanoparticles by reduction of platinum acetylacetonate and decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in the presence of oleic acid and oleyl amine stabilizers is reported. The FePt particle composition is readily controlled, and the size is tunable from 3- to 10-nanometer diameter with a standard deviation of less than 5%. These nanoparticles self-assemble into three-dimensional superlattices. Thermal annealing converts the internal particle structure from a chemically disordered face-centered cubic phase to the chemically ordered face-centered tetragonal phase and transforms the nanoparticle superlattices into ferromagnetic nanocrystal assemblies. These assemblies are chemically and mechanically robust and can support high-density magnetization reversal transitions.
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              Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli.

              In this work we investigated the antibacterial properties of differently shaped silver nanoparticles against the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, both in liquid systems and on agar plates. Energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy images revealed considerable changes in the cell membranes upon treatment, resulting in cell death. Truncated triangular silver nanoplates with a {111} lattice plane as the basal plane displayed the strongest biocidal action, compared with spherical and rod-shaped nanoparticles and with Ag(+) (in the form of AgNO(3)). It is proposed that nanoscale size and the presence of a {111} plane combine to promote this biocidal property. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative study on the bactericidal properties of silver nanoparticles of different shapes, and our results demonstrate that silver nanoparticles undergo a shape-dependent interaction with the gram-negative organism E. coli.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                16 November 2016
                2016
                : 7
                Affiliations
                1Department of Bio Sciences, Manipal University Jaipur Jaipur, India
                2Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering and Technology, Sharda University Greater Noida, India
                3Department of Microbiology, Central University of Haryana Mahendragarh, India
                Author notes

                Edited by: Octavio Luiz Franco, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brazil

                Reviewed by: Santi M. Mandal, Vidyasagar University, India; Renko De Vries, Wageningen University and Research, Netherlands

                This article was submitted to Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Article
                10.3389/fmicb.2016.01831
                5110546
                Copyright © 2016 Dakal, Kumar, Majumdar and Yadav.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 155, Pages: 17, Words: 13891
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Review

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