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A Literature Survey on Wireless Power Transfer for Biomedical Devices

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      Abstract

      This paper provides a review and survey of research on power transfer for biomedical applications based on inductive coupling. There is interest in wireless power transfer (WPT) for implantable and wearable biomedical devices, for example, heart pacemaker or implantable electrocardiogram (ECG) recorders. This paper concentrates on the applications based on near-field power transfer methods, summarizes the main design features in the recent literature, and provides some information about the system model and coil optimization.

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      Most cited references 43

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      Wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances.

      Using self-resonant coils in a strongly coupled regime, we experimentally demonstrated efficient nonradiative power transfer over distances up to 8 times the radius of the coils. We were able to transfer 60 watts with approximately 40% efficiency over distances in excess of 2 meters. We present a quantitative model describing the power transfer, which matches the experimental results to within 5%. We discuss the practical applicability of this system and suggest directions for further study.
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        Design and optimization of resonance-based efficient wireless power delivery systems for biomedical implants.

        Resonance-based wireless power delivery is an efficient technique to transfer power over a relatively long distance. This technique typically uses four coils as opposed to two coils used in conventional inductive links. In the four-coil system, the adverse effects of a low coupling coefficient between primary and secondary coils are compensated by using high-quality (Q) factor coils, and the efficiency of the system is improved. Unlike its two-coil counterpart, the efficiency profile of the power transfer is not a monotonically decreasing function of the operating distance and is less sensitive to changes in the distance between the primary and secondary coils. A four-coil energy transfer system can be optimized to provide maximum efficiency at a given operating distance. We have analyzed the four-coil energy transfer systems and outlined the effect of design parameters on power-transfer efficiency. Design steps to obtain the efficient power-transfer system are presented and a design example is provided. A proof-of-concept prototype system is implemented and confirms the validity of the proposed analysis and design techniques. In the prototype system, for a power-link frequency of 700 kHz and a coil distance range of 10 to 20 mm, using a 22-mm diameter implantable coil resonance-based system shows a power-transfer efficiency of more than 80% with an enhanced operating range compared to ~40% efficiency achieved by a conventional two-coil system.
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          Design and optimization of printed spiral coils for efficient transcutaneous inductive power transmission.

           M Ghovanloo (2007)
          The next generation of implantable high-power neuroprosthetic devices such as visual prostheses and brain computer interfaces are going to be powered by transcutaneous inductive power links formed between a pair of printed spiral coils (PSC) that are batch-fabricated using micromachining technology. Optimizing the power efficiency of the wireless link is imperative to minimize the size of the external energy source, heating dissipation in the tissue, and interference with other devices. Previous design methodologies for coils made of 1-D filaments are not comprehensive and accurate enough to consider all geometrical aspects of PSCs with planar 3-D conductors as well as design constraints imposed by implantable device application and fabrication technology. We have outlined the theoretical foundation of optimal power transmission efficiency in an inductive link, and combined it with semi-empirical models to predict parasitic components in PSCs. We have used this foundation to devise an iterative PSC design methodology that starts with a set of realistic design constraints and ends with the optimal PSC pair geometries. We have executed this procedure on two design examples at 1 and 5 MHz achieving power transmission efficiencies of 41.2% and 85.8%, respectively, at 10-mm spacing. All results are verified with simulations using a commercial field solver (HFSS) as well as measurements using PSCs fabricated on printed circuit boards.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Electrical Engineering Department, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58203, USA
            Journal
            International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
            International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
            Hindawi Limited
            1687-5869
            1687-5877
            2018
            2018
            : 2018
            : 1-11
            10.1155/2018/4382841
            © 2018

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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