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      Is Open Access

      Neuroprotective Effect of S-trans, Trans-farnesylthiosalicylic Acid via Inhibition of RAS/ERK Pathway for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

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          Abstract

          Background

          Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a leading cause of dementia, becomes a serious health issue for individuals and society around the world. AD is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and the loss of large numbers of neurons. To date, there is no effective treatment for AD, and thus, to enhance neurogenesis in the AD brain may be a therapeutic strategy. RAS signaling pathway involves in synaptic plasticity and memory formation, which is overexpressed in brains with AD. This study used Aβ 1-42-injected mice (Aβ 1-42-mice) as the AD model to investigate the effects of S-trans, trans-farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS), a synthetic Ras inhibitor, on the impairment of neurogenesis and the spatial cognitive deficits.

          Materials and methods

          AD model mice were manufactured through intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ 1-42. Morris water maze (MWM) was performed to evaluate the capacity of spatial memory, and Nissl staining was applied to assess neuronal damage in the hippocampus CA1. Immunohistochemistry of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), BrdU/neuronal nuclei (NeuN), and doublecortin (DCX) were used to detect progenitor cell proliferation, maturation, and neurite growth, respectively. And the expression levels of RAS, ERK/ERK phosphorylation (p-ERK) and CREB/CREB phosphorylation (p-CREB) were detected by Western blot.

          Results

          The results demonstrated that FTS could prevent Aβ 1-42 to impair survival and neurite growth of newborn neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) in Aβ 1-42-mice. Furthermore, behavioral indexes and morphological findings showed that FTS improved the learning and spatial memory abilities of Aβ 1-42-mice. In addition, FTS could inhibit the levels of hippocampal p-ERK and p-CREB activated by Aβ, which is the underlying molecular mechanism.

          Conclusion

          In conclusion, these findings suggest that FTS as a RAS inhibitor could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Distinct morphological stages of dentate granule neuron maturation in the adult mouse hippocampus.

          Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus may contribute to hippocampus-dependent functions, yet little is known about when and how newborn neurons are functional because of limited information about the time course of their connectivity. By using retrovirus-mediated gene transduction, we followed the dendritic and axonal growth of adult-born neurons in the mouse dentate gyrus and identified distinct morphological stages that may indicate different levels of connectivity. Axonal projections of newborn neurons reach the CA3 area 10-11 d after viral infection, 5-6 d before the first spines are formed. Quantitative analyses show that the peak of spine growth occurs during the first 3-4 weeks, but further structural modifications of newborn neurons take place for months. Moreover, the morphological maturation is differentially affected by age and experience, as shown by comparisons between adult and postnatal brains and between housing conditions. Our study reveals the key morphological transitions of newborn granule neurons during their course of maturation.
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            Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive flexibility — linking memory and mood

            In this Review, Anacker and Hen explore how regulation of dentate gyrus function by adult hippocampal neurogenesis may link the memory and mood functions of the hippocampus. They also examine the potential of targeting such regulation for mood disorders.
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              • Article: not found

              Early determination and long-term persistence of adult-generated new neurons in the hippocampus of mice.

              New neurons are continually generated in the adult hippocampus, but the important question, whether adult neurogenesis is transient or leads to the lasting presence of new neurons, has not yet been answered. Dividing cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and were investigated by means of immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy at several time-points 1 day to 11 months thereafter. BrdU-labeled neurons remained stable in number and in their relative position in the granule cell layer over at least 11 months. This finding implies that the addition of new neurons is not transient and that their final number and localization are determined early. By contrast, expression of immature markers beta-III-tubulin and doublecortin in BrdU-labeled cells, peaked early after division and was not detectable after 4 weeks. In transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under the nestin promoter none of the BrdU/nestin-positive cells early after division expressed the mature marker NeuN, confirming that no dividing neurons were detected. These new data suggest that new neurons are recruited early from the pool of proliferating progenitor cells and lead to a lasting effect of adult neurogenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                29 November 2019
                2019
                : 13
                : 4053-4063
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neurology, Xuzhou Medical University Affiliated Hospital of Huaian , Huai’an, Jiangsu Province 223002, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Neurology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing Pukou Hospital , Nanjing, Jiangsu 210000, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Liandong Zhao Department of Neurology, Xuzhou Medical University Affiliated Hospital of Huaian , No 62 Huaihainan Road, Huai’an, Jiangsu Province223002, People’s Republic of ChinaTel/Fax +86 517 80871724 Email zldong@163.com
                Article
                233283
                10.2147/DDDT.S233283
                6890185
                © 2019 Wang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 45, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Original Research

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