Maternal and newborn health poses one of the greatest health challenges in the developing world. Many low-income countries are now experiencing a demographic and epidemiological transition and changing of lifestyles. Thus, apparent "Western" diseases such as diabetes and obesity have been reaching the Third World countries. There is a paucity of reliable data on diabetes in pregnancy in many low-income countries. Adequate information about maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity as a consequence of diabetes in pregnancy is scarce. This chapter presents evidence of the magnitude and impact of diabetes in pregnancy. Additionally, we discuss interventions in screening and managing diabetes in pregnancy in these specific patient populations.