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      Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Induces Endothelial Fenestrations In Vitro

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          Abstract

          Abstract. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important regulator of vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and vascular permeability. In contrast to its transient expression during the formation of new blood vessels, VEGF and its receptors are continuously and highly expressed in some adult tissues, such as the kidney glomerulus and choroid plexus. This suggests that VEGF produced by the epithelial cells of these tissues might be involved in the induction or maintenance of fenestrations in adjacent endothelial cells expressing the VEGF receptors. Here we describe a defined in vitro culture system where fenestrae formation was induced in adrenal cortex capillary endothelial cells by VEGF, but not by fibroblast growth factor. A strong induction of endothelial fenestrations was observed in cocultures of endothelial cells with choroid plexus epithelial cells, or mammary epithelial cells stably transfected with cDNAs for VEGF 120 or 164, but not with untransfected cells. These results demonstrate that, in these cocultures, VEGF is sufficient to induce fenestrations in vitro. Identical results were achieved when the epithelial cells were replaced by an epithelial-derived basal lamina-type extracellular matrix, but not with collagen alone. In this defined system, VEGF-mediated induction of fenestrae was always accompanied by an increase in the number of fused diaphragmed caveolae-like vesicles. Caveolae, but not fenestrae, were labeled with a caveolin-1–specific antibody both in vivo and in vitro. VEGF stimulation led to VEGF receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, but no change in the distribution, phosphorylation, or protein level of caveolin-1 was observed. We conclude that VEGF in the presence of a basal lamina-type extracellular matrix specifically induces fenestrations in endothelial cells. This defined in vitro system will allow further study of the signaling mechanisms involved in fenestrae formation, modification of caveolae, and vascular permeability.

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          Most cited references 89

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          Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

          A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.
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            Caveolin, a protein component of caveolae membrane coats.

            Caveolae have been implicated in the transcytosis of macromolecules across endothelial cells and in the receptor-mediated uptake of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Structural studies indicate that caveolae are decorated on their cytoplasmic surface by a unique array of filaments or strands that form striated coatings. To understand how these nonclathrin-coated pits function, we performed structural analysis of the striated coat and searched for the molecular component(s) of the coat material. The coat cannot be removed by washing with high salt; however, exposure of membranes to cholesterol-binding drugs caused invaginated caveolae to flatten and the striated coat to disassemble. Antibodies directed against a 22 kd substrate for v-src tyrosine kinase in virus-transformed chick embryo fibroblasts decorated the filaments, suggesting that this molecule is a component of the coat. We have named the molecule caveolin. Caveolae represent a third type of coated membrane specialization that is involved in molecular transport.
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              Tumor cells secrete a vascular permeability factor that promotes accumulation of ascites fluid.

              Tumor ascites fluids from guinea pigs, hamsters, and mice contain activity that rapidly increases microvascular permeability. Similar activity is also secreted by these tumor cells and a variety of other tumor cell lines in vitro. The permeability-increasing activity purified from either the culture medium or ascites fluid of one tumor, the guinea pig line 10 hepatocarcinoma, is a 34,000- to 42,000-dalton protein distinct from other known permeability factors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Biol
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0021-9525
                1540-8140
                23 February 1998
                : 140
                : 4
                : 947-959
                Affiliations
                [* ]Max Planck Institut für Physiologische und Klinische Forschung, W.G. Kerckhoff Institut, Abteilung Molekulare Zellbiologie, D-61231 Bad Nauheim; []Institut für Pathologie, Universität Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen; and [§ ]Max Delbrück Centrum für Molekulare Medizin, D-13122 Berlin, Germany
                Article
                2141756
                9472045
                Categories
                Article

                Cell biology

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