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      Epidemiology of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: the multinational AKI-EPI study

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          Abstract

          Current reports on acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit (ICU) show wide variation in occurrence rate and are limited by study biases such as use of incomplete AKI definition, selected cohorts, or retrospective design. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the occurrence and outcomes of AKI in ICU patients.

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          Most cited references23

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          SAPS 3—From evaluation of the patient to evaluation of the intensive care unit. Part 2: Development of a prognostic model for hospital mortality at ICU admission

          Objective To develop a model to assess severity of illness and predict vital status at hospital discharge based on ICU admission data. Design Prospective multicentre, multinational cohort study. Patients and setting A total of 16,784 patients consecutively admitted to 303 intensive care units from 14 October to 15 December 2002. Measurements and results ICU admission data (recorded within ±1 h) were used, describing: prior chronic conditions and diseases; circumstances related to and physiologic derangement at ICU admission. Selection of variables for inclusion into the model used different complementary strategies. For cross-validation, the model-building procedure was run five times, using randomly selected four fifths of the sample as a development- and the remaining fifth as validation-set. Logistic regression methods were then used to reduce complexity of the model. Final estimates of regression coefficients were determined by use of multilevel logistic regression. Variables selection and weighting were further checked by bootstraping (at patient level and at ICU level). Twenty variables were selected for the final model, which exhibited good discrimination (aROC curve 0.848), without major differences across patient typologies. Calibration was also satisfactory (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test Ĥ=10.56, p=0.39, Ĉ=14.29, p=0.16). Customised equations for major areas of the world were computed and demonstrate a good overall goodness-of-fit. Conclusions The SAPS 3 admission score is able to predict vital status at hospital discharge with use of data recorded at ICU admission. Furthermore, SAPS 3 conceptually dissociates evaluation of the individual patient from evaluation of the ICU and thus allows them to be assessed at their respective reference levels. Electronic Supplementary Material Electronic supplementary material is included in the online fulltext version of this article and accessible for authorised users: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-005-2763-5
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            AKI in the ICU: definition, epidemiology, risk stratification, and outcomes.

            Acute kidney injury (AKI) has emerged as a major public health problem that affects millions of patients worldwide and leads to decreased survival and increased progression of underlying chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent consensus criteria for definition and classification of AKI have provided more consistent estimates of AKI epidemiology. Patients, in particular those in the ICU, are dying of AKI and not just simply with AKI. Even small changes in serum creatinine concentrations are associated with a substantial increase in the risk of death. AKI is not a single disease but rather a syndrome comprising multiple clinical conditions. Outcomes from AKI depend on the underlying disease, the severity and duration of renal impairment, and the patient's renal baseline condition. The development of AKI is the consequence of complex interactions between the actual insult and subsequent activation of inflammation and coagulation. Contrary to the conventional view, recent experimental and clinical data argue against renal ischemia-reperfusion as a sine qua non condition for the development of AKI. Loss of renal function can occur without histological signs of tubular damage or even necrosis. The detrimental effects of AKI are not limited to classical well-known symptoms such as fluid overload and electrolyte abnormalities. AKI can also lead to problems that are not readily appreciated at the bedside and can extend well beyond the ICU stay, including progression of CKD and impaired innate immunity. Experimental and small observational studies provide evidence that AKI impairs (innate) immunity and is associated with higher infection rates.
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              Incidence, risk factors and 90-day mortality of patients with acute kidney injury in Finnish intensive care units: the FINNAKI study.

              We aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) in Finnish ICUs. This prospective, observational, multi-centre study comprised adult emergency admissions and elective patients whose stay exceeded 24 h during a 5-month period in 17 Finnish ICUs. We defined AKI first by the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria supplemented with a baseline creatinine and second with the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. We screened the patients' AKI status and risk factors for up to 5 days. We included 2,901 patients. The incidence (95 % confidence interval) of AKI was 39.3 % (37.5-41.1 %). The incidence was 17.2 % (15.8-18.6 %) for stage 1, 8.0 % (7.0-9.0 %) for stage 2 and 14.1 % (12.8-15.4 %) for stage 3 AKI. Of the 2,901 patients 296 [10.2 % (9.1-11.3 %)] received renal replacement therapy. We received an identical classification with the new KDIGO criteria. The population-based incidence (95 % CI) of ICU-treated AKI was 746 (717-774) per million population per year (reference population: 3,671,143, i.e. 85 % of the Finnish adult population). In logistic regression, pre-ICU hypovolaemia, diuretics, colloids and chronic kidney disease were independent risk factors for AKI. Hospital mortality (95 % CI) for AKI patients was 25.6 % (23.0-28.2 %) and the 90-day mortality for AKI patients was 33.7 % (30.9-36.5 %). All AKIN stages were independently associated with 90-day mortality. The incidence of AKI in the critically ill in Finland was comparable to previous large multi-centre ICU studies. Hospital mortality (26 %) in AKI patients appeared comparable to or lower than in other studies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Intensive Care Medicine
                Intensive Care Med
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0342-4642
                1432-1238
                August 2015
                July 11 2015
                August 2015
                : 41
                : 8
                : 1411-1423
                Article
                10.1007/s00134-015-3934-7
                26162677
                043374ec-87a2-445c-ac9f-b70b59957851
                © 2015

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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