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      Bad bugs, no drugs: no ESKAPE! An update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

      Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

      Anti-Bacterial Agents, pharmacology, therapeutic use, Bacteria, drug effects, Bacterial Infections, drug therapy, Drug Discovery, trends, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Humans, United States

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          Abstract

          The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to view with concern the lean pipeline for novel therapeutics to treat drug-resistant infections, especially those caused by gram-negative pathogens. Infections now occur that are resistant to all current antibacterial options. Although the IDSA is encouraged by the prospect of success for some agents currently in preclinical development, there is an urgent, immediate need for new agents with activity against these panresistant organisms. There is no evidence that this need will be met in the foreseeable future. Furthermore, we remain concerned that the infrastructure for discovering and developing new antibacterials continues to stagnate, thereby risking the future pipeline of antibacterial drugs. The IDSA proposed solutions in its 2004 policy report, "Bad Bugs, No Drugs: As Antibiotic R&D Stagnates, a Public Health Crisis Brews," and recently issued a "Call to Action" to provide an update on the scope of the problem and the proposed solutions. A primary objective of these periodic reports is to encourage a community and legislative response to establish greater financial parity between the antimicrobial development and the development of other drugs. Although recent actions of the Food and Drug Administration and the 110th US Congress present a glimmer of hope, significant uncertainly remains. Now, more than ever, it is essential to create a robust and sustainable antibacterial research and development infrastructure--one that can respond to current antibacterial resistance now and anticipate evolving resistance. This challenge requires that industry, academia, the National Institutes of Health, the Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Department of Defense, and the new Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority at the Department of Health and Human Services work productively together. This report provides an update on potentially effective antibacterial drugs in the late-stage development pipeline, in the hope of encouraging such collaborative action.

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          Most cited references 66

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          Nosocomial bloodstream infections in US hospitals: analysis of 24,179 cases from a prospective nationwide surveillance study.

          Nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Data from a nationwide, concurrent surveillance study (Surveillance and Control of Pathogens of Epidemiological Importance [SCOPE]) were used to examine the secular trends in the epidemiology and microbiology of nosocomial BSIs. Our study detected 24,179 cases of nosocomial BSI in 49 US hospitals over a 7-year period from March 1995 through September 2002 (60 cases per 10,000 hospital admissions). Eighty-seven percent of BSIs were monomicrobial. Gram-positive organisms caused 65% of these BSIs, gram-negative organisms caused 25%, and fungi caused 9.5%. The crude mortality rate was 27%. The most-common organisms causing BSIs were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (31% of isolates), Staphylococcus aureus (20%), enterococci (9%), and Candida species (9%). The mean interval between admission and infection was 13 days for infection with Escherichia coli, 16 days for S. aureus, 22 days for Candida species and Klebsiella species, 23 days for enterococci, and 26 days for Acinetobacter species. CoNS, Pseudomonas species, Enterobacter species, Serratia species, and Acinetobacter species were more likely to cause infections in patients in intensive care units (P<.001). In neutropenic patients, infections with Candida species, enterococci, and viridans group streptococci were significantly more common. The proportion of S. aureus isolates with methicillin resistance increased from 22% in 1995 to 57% in 2001 (P<.001, trend analysis). Vancomycin resistance was seen in 2% of Enterococcus faecalis isolates and in 60% of Enterococcus faecium isolates. In this study, one of the largest multicenter studies performed to date, we found that the proportion of nosocomial BSIs due to antibiotic-resistant organisms is increasing in US hospitals.
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            Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: a clinical update.

            Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are a rapidly evolving group of beta-lactamases which share the ability to hydrolyze third-generation cephalosporins and aztreonam yet are inhibited by clavulanic acid. Typically, they derive from genes for TEM-1, TEM-2, or SHV-1 by mutations that alter the amino acid configuration around the active site of these beta-lactamases. This extends the spectrum of beta-lactam antibiotics susceptible to hydrolysis by these enzymes. An increasing number of ESBLs not of TEM or SHV lineage have recently been described. The presence of ESBLs carries tremendous clinical significance. The ESBLs are frequently plasmid encoded. Plasmids responsible for ESBL production frequently carry genes encoding resistance to other drug classes (for example, aminoglycosides). Therefore, antibiotic options in the treatment of ESBL-producing organisms are extremely limited. Carbapenems are the treatment of choice for serious infections due to ESBL-producing organisms, yet carbapenem-resistant isolates have recently been reported. ESBL-producing organisms may appear susceptible to some extended-spectrum cephalosporins. However, treatment with such antibiotics has been associated with high failure rates. There is substantial debate as to the optimal method to prevent this occurrence. It has been proposed that cephalosporin breakpoints for the Enterobacteriaceae should be altered so that the need for ESBL detection would be obviated. At present, however, organizations such as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) provide guidelines for the detection of ESBLs in klebsiellae and Escherichia coli. In common to all ESBL detection methods is the general principle that the activity of extended-spectrum cephalosporins against ESBL-producing organisms will be enhanced by the presence of clavulanic acid. ESBLs represent an impressive example of the ability of gram-negative bacteria to develop new antibiotic resistance mechanisms in the face of the introduction of new antimicrobial agents.
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              Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: an emerging public-health concern.

              The medical community relies on clinical expertise and published guidelines to assist physicians with choices in empirical therapy for system-based infectious syndromes, such as community-acquired pneumonia and urinary-tract infections (UTIs). From the late 1990s, multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (mostly Escherichia coli) that produce extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs), such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of UTIs. Recent reports have also described ESBL-producing E coli as a cause of bloodstream infections associated with these community-onset UTIs. The carbapenems are widely regarded as the drugs of choice for the treatment of severe infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, although comparative clinical trials are scarce. Thus, more rapid diagnostic testing of ESBL-producing bacteria and the possible modification of guidelines for community-onset bacteraemia associated with UTIs are required.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                19035777
                10.1086/595011

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