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      Pharmacokinetics of the Yougui pill in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model rats and its pharmacological activity in vitro

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          To determine the pharmacokinetic properties and pharmacological activity of the Yougui pill (YGP), which is a well-known Chinese medicine formula.


          An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry via electrospray ionization interface (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of several components in rat plasma. The method was then successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics of six bioactive components in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model rats after oral administration of YGP. The expression of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in SH-SY5Y cells treated with these six components, YGP extract, and YGP-containing serum were investigated to determine the pharmacodyamic material basis of YGP. Six bioactive components were detected in rat plasma, including songorine, benzoylhypaconitine, benzoylmesaconitine, neoline, karacoline and sweroside, which were rapidly absorbed after administration in EAE model rats.


          The main pharmacokinetic parameters of six bioactive components were determined, and the constituents increased CREB and GAP-43 expressions in serum-deprived SH-SY5Y cells. The YGP-containing serum, six bioactive components, and YGP extract significantly increased the expression of both CREB and GAP-43 ( P<0.01), and there was no difference between the three groups.


          The songorine, benzoylhypaconitine, benzoylmesaconitine, neoline, karacoline and sweroside were confirmed as the major bioactive components in YGP. The acquired data will be helpful for understanding the pharmacological and effective constituents of YGP.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Function and regulation of CREB family transcription factors in the nervous system.

          CREB and its close relatives are now widely accepted as prototypical stimulus-inducible transcription factors. In many cell types, these factors function as effector molecules that bring about cellular changes in response to discrete sets of instructions. In neurons, a wide range of extracellular stimuli are capable of activating CREB family members, and CREB-dependent gene expression has been implicated in complex and diverse processes ranging from development to plasticity to disease. In this review, we focus on the current level of understanding of where, when, and how CREB family members function in the nervous system.
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            A mechanism by which the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway mediates growth factor-dependent cell survival was characterized. The MAPK-activated kinases, the Rsks, catalyzed the phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD at serine 112 both in vitro and in vivo. The Rsk-induced phosphorylation of BAD at serine 112 suppressed BAD-mediated apoptosis in neurons. Rsks also are known to phosphorylate the transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) at serine 133. Activated CREB promoted cell survival, and inhibition of CREB phosphorylation at serine 133 triggered apoptosis. These findings suggest that the MAPK signaling pathway promotes cell survival by a dual mechanism comprising the posttranslational modification and inactivation of a component of the cell death machinery and the increased transcription of pro-survival genes.
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              Mediation by a CREB family transcription factor of NGF-dependent survival of sympathetic neurons.

              Nerve growth factor (NGF) and other neurotrophins support survival of neurons through processes that are incompletely understood. The transcription factor CREB is a critical mediator of NGF-dependent gene expression, but whether CREB family transcription factors regulate expression of genes that contribute to NGF-dependent survival of sympathetic neurons is unknown. CREB-mediated gene expression was both necessary for NGF-dependent survival and sufficient on its own to promote survival of sympathetic neurons. Moreover, expression of Bcl-2 was activated by NGF and other neurotrophins by a CREB-dependent transcriptional mechanism. Overexpression of Bcl-2 reduced the death-promoting effects of CREB inhibition. Together, these data support a model in which neurotrophins promote survival of neurons, in part through a mechanism involving CREB family transcription factor-dependent expression of genes encoding prosurvival factors.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                16 July 2019
                : 13
                : 2357-2370
                [1 ]School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing Key Lab of TCM Collateral Disease Theory Research, Capital Medical University , Beijing 100069, China
                [2 ]Beijing Institute For Drug Control, Beijing Key Laboratory of Analysis and Evaluation on Chinese Medicine , Beijing 100035, China
                [3 ]Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences , Beijing 100700, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Baolin BianInstitute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences , Beijing100700, ChinaEmail blbian@ 123456icmm.ac.cn
                Lei WangSchool of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing Key Lab of TCM Collateral Disease Theory Research, Capital Medical University , Beijing100069, ChinaTel +86 10 8391 1626Fax +86 10 8391 1627Email tmwangl@ 123456ccmu.edu.cn

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2019 Liu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 3, References: 39, Pages: 14
                Original Research


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