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      A dominant-negative mutation of the growth hormone receptor causes familial short stature.

      Nature genetics

      Binding Sites, Body Height, genetics, Carrier Proteins, blood, Child, Preschool, Cytoplasm, metabolism, Female, Genes, Dominant, Heterozygote, Human Growth Hormone, pharmacology, Humans, Male, Mutation, Receptors, Somatotropin, drug effects

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          Most cited references 14

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          Characterization of the human growth hormone receptor gene and demonstration of a partial gene deletion in two patients with Laron-type dwarfism.

          Laron-type dwarfism is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that is characterized by high levels of growth hormone and low levels of insulin-like growth factor I in the circulation. Several lines of evidence suggest that this disease is caused by a defect in the growth hormone receptor. In order to analyze the receptor gene in patients with Laron-type dwarfism and with other growth disorders, we have first determined the gene structure in normal individuals. There are nine exons that encode the receptor and several additional exons in the 5' untranslated region. The coding exons span at least 87 kilobase pairs of chromosome 5. Characterization of the growth hormone receptor gene from nine patients with Laron-type dwarfism shows that two individuals have a deletion of a large portion of the extracellular, hormone binding domain of the receptor gene. Interestingly, this deletion includes nonconsecutive exons, suggesting that an unusual rearrangement may have occurred. Thus, we provide direct evidence that Laron-type dwarfism can result from a defect in the structural gene for the growth hormone receptor.
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            Growth hormone receptor and serum binding protein: purification, cloning and expression.

            A putative growth hormone receptor from rabbit liver and the growth hormone binding protein from rabbit serum have the same amino-terminal amino-acid sequence, indicating that the binding protein corresponds to the extracellular hormone-binding domain of the liver receptor. The complete amino-acid sequences derived from complementary DNA clones encoding the putative human and rabbit growth hormone receptors are not similar to other known proteins, demonstrating a new class of transmembrane receptors.
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              Mutations of the growth hormone receptor in children with idiopathic short stature. The Growth Hormone Insensitivity Study Group.

              Short stature in children who are not deficient in growth hormone (GH) is probably caused by a variety of defects. Some children with idiopathic short stature have low serum concentrations of GH-binding protein, which is derived from the GH receptor. The possibility that low serum concentrations of GH-binding protein might indicate partial insensitivity to GH led us to investigate possible defects in the gene for the GH receptor in children with idiopathic short stature and low serum concentrations of GH-binding protein. We studied 14 children with idiopathic short stature who were selected on the basis of normal GH secretion and low serum concentrations of GH-binding protein. Analysis of single-strand conformation polymorphisms and DNA sequencing were both used to identify mutations in the GH-receptor gene. Mutations in the region of the GH-receptor gene that codes for the extracellular domain of the receptor were found in 4 of the 14 children, but in none of 24 normal subjects. One of the four children with mutations was a compound heterozygote, with one mutation that reduced the affinity of the receptor for GH and a second mutation that may affect a function other than ligand binding. The remaining three children had single mutations in one allele of the gene. One mutation introduced a premature termination codon, and two caused substitutions of single amino acids in a structurally conserved domain of the receptor. Some children with idiopathic short stature may have partial insensitivity to GH due to mutations in the GH-receptor gene.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                9140387
                10.1038/ng0597-13

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