+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Malignant Melanoma of Unknown Primary Origin Presenting as Cardiac Metastasis


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Malignant melanoma has a very high propensity to metastasize to the heart. However, melanoma may sometimes present as a metastatic lesion in the absence of a primary lesion, which are called melanomas of unknown primary origin. We report a case in which a patient presented with a metastatic maligant melanoma in the right atrium with pericardial effusion and without a primary origin.

          Related collections

          Most cited references15

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The National Cancer Data Base report on cutaneous and noncutaneous melanoma: a summary of 84,836 cases from the past decade. The American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer and the American Cancer Society.

          This study reviews the case-mix characteristics, management, and outcomes of melanoma cases occuring in the U.S. within the last decade. Analyses of the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) were performed on cases diagnosed between 1985 through 1994. A total of 84,836 cases comprised of cutaneous and noncutaneous melanomas were evaluated. The percentages of melanomas that were cutaneous, ocular, mucosal, and unknown primaries were 91.2%, 5.2%, 1.3%, and 2.2%, respectively. For cutaneous melanomas, the proportion of patients presenting with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stages 0, I, II, III, and IV were 14.9%, 47.7%, 23.1%, 8.9%, and 5.3%, respectively. Factors associated with decreased survival included more advanced stage at diagnosis, nodular or acral lentiginous histology, increased age, male gender, nonwhite race, and lower income. Multivariate analysis identified stage, histology, gender, age, and income as independent prognostic factors. For ocular melanomas, 85.0% were uveal, 4.8% were conjunctival, and 10.2% occurred at other sites. During the study period, there was a large increase in the proportion of ocular melanoma patients treated with radiation therapy alone. For mucosal melanomas, the distribution of head and neck, female genital tract, anal/rectal, and urinary tract sites was 55.4%, 18.0%, 23.8%, and 2.8%, respectively. Patients with lymph node involvement had a poor prognosis. For unknown primary melanomas, the distribution of metastases as localized to a region or multiple sites at presentation was 43.0% and 57.0%, respectively. Surgical treatment of patients with unknown primary site of the melanoma resulted in better survival compared with no treatment. Treatment of early stage cutaneous melanoma resulted in excellent patient outcomes. In addition to conventional prognostic factors, socioeconomic factors were found to be associated with survival.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Prognostic factors in metastatic melanoma: a pooled analysis of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trials.

            To identify factors that are prognostic for survival in patients with metastatic melanoma treated in eight Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) trials conducted over the past 25 years. We identified common, significant patient characteristics collected at baseline on 1,362 eligible patients for inclusion in a pooled analysis. Proportional hazards models were used to examine simultaneously the effects of multiple covariates on survival. Median survival was 6.4 months (95% confidence interval, 6.1 to 6.9 months.) Factors conferring the greatest increased risk of death included number of metastatic sites (relative risk [RR] = 1.12), ECOG performance status of 1 or more (RR = 1.49), or metastatic disease in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (RR = 1.49), liver (RR = 1.44), pleura (RR = 1.35), or lung (RR = 1.19). Prior immunotherapy (RR = 0.84) and female sex (RR = 0. 87) were associated with prolonged survival. Although only 12% of patients responded to protocol treatment, landmark analysis showed this to be a significant prognostic factor (RR = 0.57). A model based on three recent studies in which baseline values for alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and platelets were available identified an increased number of sites of metastasis (RR = 1.30), abnormal LDH (RR = 1.89), abnormal alkaline phosphatase (RR = 1.76), abnormal platelets (RR = 1.63), and GI metastases (RR = 1. 66) as prognostic for poorer survival. Response to treatment, when examined by landmark analysis of studies with laboratory parameters, was associated with decreased risk of death (RR = 0.47). This study demonstrates the importance and utility of laboratory parameters as prognostic factors for survival and confirmed the deleterious effects of multiple metastatic sites. Prior immunotherapy and female sex were associated with improved prognosis. Prognostic factors identified in this analysis are consistent with the findings of prior published studies and argue for the adoption of laboratory findings in the staging systems that are used for entry and stratification of clinical trials in the future.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Melanoma of unknown primary: experience at Massachusetts General Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.

              Melanoma may present metastatically without an identifiable primary lesion. To further characterize the epidemiology of melanoma of unknown primary (MUP), we report our experience with a cohort of MUP patients. We retrospectively reviewed patients seen at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) between 1986 and 1996 with follow-up to 2002. Data were analysed using log-rank and proportional hazards analyses, with death from any cause as the main outcome measure. Of the 2485 melanoma patients seen, 65 (2.6%) had MUP; 41 patients were male [63.1%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 50.2%, 74.7%]. The median age at diagnosis was 54.1 years (interquartile range, 39.4-67.1 years). Thirty patients had lymph node metastases, 12 cutaneous or subcutaneous metastases and 23 visceral metastases. Of the 62 patients (95.4%) with at least some follow-up, there were 42 deaths from any cause. Patients with lymph node metastases survived significantly longer than patients with other metastases [5-year survival 38.7% (95% CI, 18.1%, 59.1%) vs. 13.9% (95% CI, 4.4%, 28.6%); P<0.01]. After adjusting for stage and age at diagnosis, there was some evidence that men survived longer than women [hazard ratio (HR)=0.55; 95% CI, 0.28, 1.09]. Survival did not differ amongst patients with different types of non-lymph node metastases. The 5-year survival rates in this cohort did not differ from those of historical controls with known primaries. The demographic and survival characteristics of this MUP cohort mirrored those found in previous studies. More studies of MUP patients, as well as a standardized definition of MUP, may shed light on the pathogenesis and prognosis of MUP.

                Author and article information

                Korean Circ J
                Korean Circ J
                Korean Circulation Journal
                The Korean Society of Cardiology
                April 2012
                26 April 2012
                : 42
                : 4
                : 278-280
                Department of Internal Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Eun Seok Jeon, MD, Department of Internal Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710, Korea. Tel: 82-2-3410-3419, Fax: 82-2-3410-3849, esjeon@ 123456skku.edu
                Copyright © 2012 The Korean Society of Cardiology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Case Report

                Cardiovascular Medicine
                heart neoplasms,melanoma,neoplasma, unknown primary,unknown primary
                Cardiovascular Medicine
                heart neoplasms, melanoma, neoplasma, unknown primary, unknown primary


                Comment on this article