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      Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Presenting as Pericarditis and Pericardial Effusion

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          Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) affects 30–43% of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Pericarditis and pericardial effusion are rare manifestations of IRIS. We report a case of HIV-TB related IRIS that developed pericardial involvement. This complication resolved after treatment with ibuprofen. Antituberculous treatment and HAART were not interrupted.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Tuberculous pericarditis.

          The incidence of tuberculous pericarditis is increasing in Africa as a result of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. The primary objective of this article was to review and summarize the literature on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of tuberculous pericarditis. We searched MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2005) and the Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2005) for information on relevant references. A "definite" diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis is based on the demonstration of tubercle bacilli in pericardial fluid or on a histological section of the pericardium; "probable" tuberculous pericarditis is based on the proof of tuberculosis elsewhere in a patient with otherwise unexplained pericarditis, a lymphocytic pericardial exudate with elevated adenosine deaminase levels, and/or appropriate response to a trial of antituberculosis chemotherapy. Treatment consists of the standard 4-drug antituberculosis regimen for 6 months. It is uncertain whether adjunctive corticosteroids are effective in reducing mortality or progression to constriction. Surgical resection of the pericardium remains the appropriate treatment for constrictive pericarditis. The timing of surgical intervention is controversial, but many experts recommend a trial of medical therapy for noncalcific pericardial constriction, and pericardiectomy in nonresponders after 4 to 8 weeks of antituberculosis chemotherapy. Research is needed to improve the diagnosis, assess the effectiveness of adjunctive steroids, and determine the impact of HIV infection on the outcome of tuberculous pericarditis.
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            Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution disease: incidence, risk factors and impact in an antiretroviral treatment service in South Africa.

            To determine the burden and impact of immune reconstitution disease (IRD) associated with tuberculosis (TB) among patients initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Retrospective analysis of a study cohort enrolled over 3 years within a community-based ART service in South Africa. Patients receiving treatment for TB at the time ART was initiated (n = 160) were studied. Cases of TB-associated IRD during the first 4 months of ART were ascertained. The median baseline CD4 cell count was 68 cells/microl [interquartile range (IQR), 29-133 cells/microl) and ART was initiated after a median of 105 days (IQR, 61-164 days) from TB diagnosis. Although IRD was diagnosed in just 12% (n = 19) of patients overall, IRD developed in 32% (n = 12) of those who started ART within 2 months of TB diagnosis. Pulmonary involvement was observed in 84% (n = 16) and intra-abdominal manifestations were also common (37%). Overall, 4% (n = 7) of the cohort required secondary level health-care for IRD and two (1%) patients died. In multivariate analysis, risk of IRD was strongly associated with early ART initiation and low baseline CD4 cell count. Of patients with CD4 counts 120 days of TB diagnosis were 100%, 33%, 14%, 7% and 0%, respectively. The risk of TB-associated IRD in this setting is very high for those with low baseline CD4 cell counts initiating ART early in the course of antituberculosis treatment. However, most cases were self-limiting; overall secondary health-care utilization and mortality risk from IRD were low.
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              Determinants of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV type 1-infected patients with tuberculosis after initiation of antiretroviral therapy.

              Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) occurred in 16 of 37 antiretroviral-naive patients who were treated subsequently for tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection. IRIS was related to increases in the CD4 cell percentage and in the ratio of CD4 cells to CD8 cells after 1 month of antiretroviral therapy and to dissemination of tuberculosis. These results have implications for the diagnosis of IRIS and the understanding of its pathogenesis.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                April 2008
                31 October 2007
                : 110
                : 2
                : 142-144
                Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Tex., USA
                110494 Cardiology 2008;110:142–144
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 12, Pages: 3
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