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Islet Transplantation Stabilizes Hemostatic Abnormalities and Cerebral Metabolism in Individuals With Type 1 Diabetes

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      Abstract

      OBJECTIVEIslets after kidney transplantation have been shown to positively affect the quality of life of individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) by reducing the burden of diabetes complications, but fewer data are available for islet transplantation alone (ITA). The aim of this study was to assess whether ITA has a positive impact on hemostatic and cerebral abnormalities in individuals with T1D.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSProthrombotic factors, platelet function/ultrastructure, and cerebral morphology, metabolism, and function have been investigated over a 15-month follow-up period using ELISA/electron microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and neuropsychological evaluation (Profile of Mood States test and paced auditory serial addition test) in 22 individuals with T1D who underwent ITA (n = 12) or remained on the waiting list (n = 10). Patients were homogeneous with regard to metabolic criteria, hemostatic parameters, and cerebral morphology/metabolism/function at the time of enrollment on the waiting list.RESULTSAt the 15-month follow-up, the group undergoing ITA, but not individuals with T1D who remained on the waiting list, showed 1) improved glucose metabolism; 2) near-normal platelet activation and prothrombotic factor levels; 3) near-normal cerebral metabolism and function; and 4) a near-normal neuropsychological test.CONCLUSIONSITA, despite immunosuppressive therapy, is associated with a near-normalization of hemostatic and cerebral abnormalities.

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      The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group.

      Long-term microvascular and neurologic complications cause major morbidity and mortality in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We examined whether intensive treatment with the goal of maintaining blood glucose concentrations close to the normal range could decrease the frequency and severity of these complications. A total of 1441 patients with IDDM--726 with no retinopathy at base line (the primary-prevention cohort) and 715 with mild retinopathy (the secondary-intervention cohort) were randomly assigned to intensive therapy administered either with an external insulin pump or by three or more daily insulin injections and guided by frequent blood glucose monitoring or to conventional therapy with one or two daily insulin injections. The patients were followed for a mean of 6.5 years, and the appearance and progression of retinopathy and other complications were assessed regularly. In the primary-prevention cohort, intensive therapy reduced the adjusted mean risk for the development of retinopathy by 76 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 62 to 85 percent), as compared with conventional therapy. In the secondary-intervention cohort, intensive therapy slowed the progression of retinopathy by 54 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 39 to 66 percent) and reduced the development of proliferative or severe nonproliferative retinopathy by 47 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 14 to 67 percent). In the two cohorts combined, intensive therapy reduced the occurrence of microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion of > or = 40 mg per 24 hours) by 39 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 21 to 52 percent), that of albuminuria (urinary albumin excretion of > or = 300 mg per 24 hours) by 54 percent (95 percent confidence interval 19 to 74 percent), and that of clinical neuropathy by 60 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 38 to 74 percent). The chief adverse event associated with intensive therapy was a two-to-threefold increase in severe hypoglycemia. Intensive therapy effectively delays the onset and slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy in patients with IDDM.
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        Intensive diabetes treatment and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes.

        Intensive diabetes therapy aimed at achieving near normoglycemia reduces the risk of microvascular and neurologic complications of type 1 diabetes. We studied whether the use of intensive therapy as compared with conventional therapy during the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) affected the long-term incidence of cardiovascular disease. The DCCT randomly assigned 1441 patients with type 1 diabetes to intensive or conventional therapy, treating them for a mean of 6.5 years between 1983 and 1993. Ninety-three percent were subsequently followed until February 1, 2005, during the observational Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study. Cardiovascular disease (defined as nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, death from cardiovascular disease, confirmed angina, or the need for coronary-artery revascularization) was assessed with standardized measures and classified by an independent committee. During the mean 17 years of follow-up, 46 cardiovascular disease events occurred in 31 patients who had received intensive treatment in the DCCT, as compared with 98 events in 52 patients who had received conventional treatment. Intensive treatment reduced the risk of any cardiovascular disease event by 42 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 9 to 63 percent; P=0.02) and the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular disease by 57 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 12 to 79 percent; P=0.02). The decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin values during the DCCT was significantly associated with most of the positive effects of intensive treatment on the risk of cardiovascular disease. Microalbuminuria and albuminuria were associated with a significant increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease, but differences between treatment groups remained significant (P< or =0.05) after adjusting for these factors. Intensive diabetes therapy has long-term beneficial effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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          Five-year follow-up after clinical islet transplantation.

          Islet transplantation can restore endogenous beta-cell function to subjects with type 1 diabetes. Sixty-five patients received an islet transplant in Edmonton as of 1 November 2004. Their mean age was 42.9 +/- 1.2 years, their mean duration of diabetes was 27.1 +/- 1.3 years, and 57% were women. The main indication was problematic hypoglycemia. Forty-four patients completed the islet transplant as defined by insulin independence, and three further patients received >16,000 islet equivalents (IE)/kg but remained on insulin and are deemed complete. Those who became insulin independent received a total of 799,912 +/- 30,220 IE (11,910 +/- 469 IE/kg). Five subjects became insulin independent after one transplant. Fifty-two patients had two transplants, and 11 subjects had three transplants. In the completed patients, 5-year follow-up reveals that the majority ( approximately 80%) have C-peptide present post-islet transplant, but only a minority ( approximately 10%) maintain insulin independence. The median duration of insulin independence was 15 months (interquartile range 6.2-25.5). The HbA(1c) (A1C) level was well controlled in those off insulin (6.4% [6.1-6.7]) and in those back on insulin but C-peptide positive (6.7% [5.9-7.5]) and higher in those who lost all graft function (9.0% [6.7-9.3]) (P < 0.05). Those who resumed insulin therapy did not appear more insulin resistant compared with those off insulin and required half their pretransplant daily dose of insulin but had a lower increment of C-peptide to a standard meal challenge (0.44 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.76 +/- 0.06 nmol/l, P < 0.001). The Hypoglycemic score and lability index both improved significantly posttransplant. In the 128 procedures performed, bleeding occurred in 15 and branch portal vein thrombosis in 5 subjects. Complications of immunosuppressive therapy included mouth ulcers, diarrhea, anemia, and ovarian cysts. Of the 47 completed patients, 4 required retinal laser photocoagulation or vitrectomy and 5 patients with microalbuminuria developed macroproteinuria. The need for multiple antihypertensive medications increased from 6% pretransplant to 42% posttransplant, while the use of statin therapy increased from 23 to 83% posttransplant. There was no change in the neurothesiometer scores pre- versus posttransplant. In conclusion, islet transplantation can relieve glucose instability and problems with hypoglycemia. C-peptide secretion was maintained in the majority of subjects for up to 5 years, although most reverted to using some insulin. The results, though promising, still point to the need for further progress in the availability of transplantable islets, improving islet engraftment, preserving islet function, and reducing toxic immunosuppression.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Nephrology Division, Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
            2Department of Transplant Medicine, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy
            3Department of Neuroradiology, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy
            4Department of Anesthesiology, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy
            5Diabetes Research Institute, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy
            6Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy
            7Pathology Department, Ospedale di Circolo, Varese, Italy
            8Chromatographic Techniques Service, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy
            9Centre for the Study of Atherosclerosis, Bassini Hospital, Cinisello Balsamo, Italy
            10Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX
            11Department of Medicine, Universita' Vita Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
            Author notes
            Corresponding author: Paolo Fiorina, paolo.fiorina@ 123456childrens.harvard.edu , or Antonio Secchi, antonio.secchi@ 123456hsr.it .
            Journal
            Diabetes Care
            Diabetes Care
            diacare
            dcare
            Diabetes Care
            Diabetes Care
            American Diabetes Association
            0149-5992
            1935-5548
            January 2014
            11 December 2013
            : 37
            : 1
            : 267-276
            24026546
            3867995
            1663
            10.2337/dc13-1663
            © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

            Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ for details.

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            Pages: 10
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            Categories
            Pathophysiology/Complications

            Endocrinology & Diabetes

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