Blog
About

13
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The bovine paranasal sinuses: Bacterial flora, epithelial expression of nitric oxide and potential role in the in-herd persistence of respiratory disease pathogens

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The bovine paranasal sinuses are a group of complex cavernous air-filled spaces, lined by respiratory epithelium, the exact function of which is unclear. While lesions affecting these sinuses are occasionally reported in cattle, their microbial flora has not been defined. Furthermore, given that the various bacterial and viral pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) persist within herds, we speculated that the paranasal sinuses may serve as a refuge for such infectious agents. The paranasal sinuses of clinically normal cattle (n = 99) and of cattle submitted for post-mortem examination (PME: n = 34) were examined by microbial culture, PCR and serology to include bacterial and viral pathogens typically associated with BRD: Mycoplasma bovis, Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (BPIV-3). Overall, the paranasal sinuses were either predominantly sterile or did not contain detectable microbes (83.5%: 94.9% of clinically normal and 50.0% of cattle submitted for PME). Bacteria, including BRD causing pathogens, were identified in relatively small numbers of cattle (<10%). While serology indicated widespread exposure of both clinically normal and cattle submitted for PME to BPIV-3 and BRSV (seroprevalences of 91.6% and 84.7%, respectively), PCR identified BPIV-3 in only one animal. To further explore these findings we investigated the potential role of the antimicrobial molecule nitric oxide (NO) within paranasal sinus epithelium using immunohistochemistry. Expression of the enzyme responsible for NO synthesis, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), was detected to varying degrees in 76.5% of a sub-sample of animals suggesting production of this compound plays a similar protective role in the bovine sinus as it does in humans.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 51

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Rhinosinusitis: Establishing definitions for clinical research and patient care

          Background There is a need for more research on all forms of rhinosinusitis. Progress in this area has been hampered by a lack of consensus definitions and the limited number of published clinical trials. Objectives To develop consensus definitions for rhinosinusitis and outline strategies useful in clinical trials. Methods Five national societies, The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; The American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy; The American Academy of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery; The American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; and the American Rhinologic Society formed an expert panel from multiple disciplines. Over two days, the panel developed definitions for rhinosinusitis and outlined strategies for design of clinical trials. Results Committee members agreed to adopt the term “rhinosinusitis” and reached consensus on definitions and strategies for clinical research on acute presumed bacterial rhinosinusitis, chronic rhinosinusitis without polyposis, chronic rhinosinusitis with polyposis, and classic allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Symptom and objective criteria, measures for monitoring research progress, and use of symptom scoring tools, quality-of-life instruments, radiologic studies, and rhinoscopic assessment were outlined for each condition. Conclusion The recommendations from this conference should improve accuracy of clinical diagnosis and serve as a starting point for design of rhinosinusitis clinical trials.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Bacterial pathogens of the bovine respiratory disease complex.

            Pneumonia caused by the bacterial pathogens discussed in this article is the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality of the BRDC. Most of these infectious bacteria are not capable of inducing significant disease without the presence of other predisposing environmental factors, physiologic stressors, or concurrent infections. Mannheimia haemolytica is the most common and serious of these bacterial agents and is therefore also the most highly characterized. There are other important bacterial pathogens of BRD, such as Pasteurella multocida, Histophulus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. Mixed infections with these organisms do occur. These pathogens have unique and common virulence factors but the resulting pneumonic lesions may be similar. Although the amount and quality of research associated with BRD has increased, vaccination and therapeutic practices are not fully successful. A greater understanding of the virulence mechanisms of the infecting bacteria and pathogenesis of pneumonia, as well as the characteristics of the organisms that allow tissue persistence, may lead to improved management, therapeutics, and vaccines. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Endogenous nitric oxide is present in the exhaled air of rabbits, guinea pigs and humans.

              The presence of nitric oxide (NO) in the exhaled air of humans and of anaesthetized rabbits and guinea pigs was demonstrated by chemiluminescence, diazotization and mass spectrometry. This NO is endogenously produced in the lung by an NO synthase, since its generation in guinea pigs and rabbits was inhibited by N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, inhibitors of this enzyme. The effect of the inhibitors was reversed by the precursor of NO synthesis, L-arginine. Since NO is produced by normal vascular endothelium for the physiological regulation of blood flow and pressure and also by activated macrophages to contribute to non-specific immunity, our experiments suggest that NO may play both vascular regulatory and host defence roles in pulmonary physiology and pathophysiology.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                10 March 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Sligo Regional Veterinary Laboratory, Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine, Doonally, Sligo, Ireland
                [2 ]Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine, Backweston, Celbridge, County Kildare, Ireland
                [3 ]School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland
                [4 ]Centre for Veterinary Epidemiology and Risk Analysis, UCD School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland
                [5 ]Animal and Bioscience Research Department, Animal & Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Teagasc, Grange, Dunsany, County Meath, Ireland
                Oklahoma State University, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                • Conceptualization: GMM RGON JPC.

                • Data curation: GMM AM RGON SJM.

                • Formal analysis: GMM AM RGON SJM.

                • Methodology: GMM RGON JPC.

                • Project administration: GMM JPC.

                • Resources: AML RGON MCMcE.

                • Supervision: RGON JPC.

                • Validation: GMM AML JPC.

                • Visualization: GMM AML JPC.

                • Writing – original draft: GMM AML JPC.

                • Writing – review & editing: GMM RGON AML MCMcE AM SJM BE JPC.

                Article
                PONE-D-16-48725
                10.1371/journal.pone.0173845
                5345874
                28282443
                © 2017 Murray et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Pages: 14
                Product
                Funding
                The authors received no specific funding for this work.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Neurochemistry
                Neurochemicals
                Nitric Oxide
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Neurochemistry
                Neurochemicals
                Nitric Oxide
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Mammals
                Bovines
                Cattle
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Mammals
                Ruminants
                Cattle
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Microbiology
                Medical Microbiology
                Microbial Pathogens
                Bacterial Pathogens
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
                Pathogens
                Microbial Pathogens
                Bacterial Pathogens
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Mammals
                Bovines
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Microbiology
                Medical Microbiology
                Microbial Pathogens
                Bacterial Pathogens
                Pasteurella Multocida
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
                Pathogens
                Microbial Pathogens
                Bacterial Pathogens
                Pasteurella Multocida
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Molecular Biology
                Molecular Biology Techniques
                Artificial Gene Amplification and Extension
                Polymerase Chain Reaction
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Molecular Biology Techniques
                Artificial Gene Amplification and Extension
                Polymerase Chain Reaction
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Biological Tissue
                Epithelium
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Biological Tissue
                Epithelium
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Microbiology
                Medical Microbiology
                Microbial Pathogens
                Viral Pathogens
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
                Pathogens
                Microbial Pathogens
                Viral Pathogens
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Viruses
                Viral Pathogens
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

                Uncategorized

                Comments

                Comment on this article