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      Signs and symptoms associated with digestive tract development Translated title: Sinais e sintomas associados com o desenvolvimento do trato digestivo


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          ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the development and prevalence of gastrointestinal signs and symptoms associated with the development of the digestive tract, and to assess the measures aimed to reduce their negative impacts. Source of data: Considering the scope and comprehensiveness of the subject, a systematic review of the literature was not carried out. The Medline database was used to identify references that would allow the analysis of the study topics. Synthesis of results: Infants frequently show several gastrointestinal signs and symptoms. These clinical manifestations can be part of gastrointestinal functional disorders such as infantile colic, infant regurgitation, and functional constipation. Allergy to cow's milk protein and gastroesophageal reflux disease are also causes of these clinical manifestations and represent an important and difficult differential diagnosis. The diseases that course with gastrointestinal signs and symptoms can have an impact on family dynamics and maternal emotional status, and may be associated with future problems in the child's life. Comprehensive pediatric care is essential for diagnosis and treatment. Maternal breastfeeding should always be maintained. Some special formulas can contribute to the control of clinical manifestations depending on the established diagnosis. Conclusion: During the normal development of the digestive tract, several gastrointestinal signs and symptoms may occur, usually resulting from functional gastrointestinal disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and allergy to cow's milk protein. Breastfeeding should always be maintained.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar o desenvolvimento e a prevalência de sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais associados com o desenvolvimento do tubo digestivo e as medidas que visam a diminuir suas repercussões negativas. Fontes dos dados: Considerando a abrangência e amplitude do tema, não foi feita revisão sistemática da literatura. Usou-se a base de dados do Medline para a identificação de referências bibliográficas que permitissem contemplar os temas de estudo. Síntese dos resultados: O lactente apresenta com elevada frequência sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais. Essas manifestações clínicas podem fazer parte de distúrbios funcionais gastrintestinais, como cólica, regurgitação e constipação intestinal funcional. A alergia à proteína do leite de vaca e a doença do refluxo gastroesofágico também são causas dessas manifestações clínicas e representam um importante e difícil diagnóstico diferencial. As doenças que cursam com sintomas e sinais gastrintestinais podem ter consequências na dinâmica familiar e no estado emocional das mães. Podem se associar com problemas na vida futura da criança. A atenção pediátrica completa é fundamental para o diagnóstico e o tratamento. O aleitamento natural deve sempre ser mantido. Algumas fórmulas especiais podem contribuir para o controle das manifestações clínicas na dependência do diagnóstico estabelecido. Conclusão: Durante o desenvolvimento normal do tubo digestivo podem ocorrer sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais em geral decorrentes dos distúrbios gastrintestinais funcionais, da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico e da alergia à proteína do leite de vaca. Aleitamento natural deve sempre ser mantido.

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            A mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis during the first six months of age.

            Oligosaccharides may alter postnatal immune development by influencing the constitution of gastrointestinal bacterial flora. To investigate the effect of a prebiotic mixture of galacto- and long chain fructo-oligosaccharides on the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) during the first six months of life in formula fed infants at high risk of atopy. Prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial; 259 infants at risk for atopy were enrolled. A total of 102 infants in the prebiotic group and 104 infants in the placebo group completed the study. If bottle feeding was started, the infant was randomly assigned to one of two hydrolysed protein formula groups (0.8 g/100 ml prebiotics or maltodextrine as placebo). All infants were examined for clinical evidence of atopic dermatitis. In a subgroup of 98 infants, faecal flora was analysed. Ten infants (9.8%; 95 CI 5.4-17.1%) in the intervention group and 24 infants (23.1%; 95 CI 16.0-32.1%) in the control group developed AD. The severity of the dermatitis was not affected by diet. Prebiotic supplements were associated with a significantly higher number of faecal bifidobacteria compared with controls but there was no significant difference in lactobacilli counts. Results show for the first time a beneficial effect of prebiotics on the development of atopic dermatitis in a high risk population of infants. Although the mechanism of this effect requires further investigation, it appears likely that oligosaccharides modulate postnatal immune development by altering bowel flora and have a potential role in primary allergy prevention during infancy.
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              Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux Clinical Practice Guidelines: Joint Recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN)

              To develop a North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) international consensus on the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease in the pediatric population. An international panel of 9 pediatric gastroenterologists and 2 epidemiologists were selected by both societies, which developed these guidelines based on the Delphi principle. Statements were based on systematic literature searches using the best-available evidence from PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and bibliographies. The committee convened in face-to-face meetings 3 times. Consensus was achieved for all recommendations through nominal group technique, a structured, quantitative method. Articles were evaluated using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Using the Oxford Grades of Recommendation, the quality of evidence of each of the recommendations made by the committee was determined and is summarized in appendices. More than 600 articles were reviewed for this work. The document provides evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease in the pediatric population. This document is intended to be used in daily practice for the development of future clinical practice guidelines and as a basis for clinical trials.

                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Jornal de Pediatria
                J. Pediatr. (Rio J.)
                Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria
                June 2016
                : 92
                : 3 suppl 1
                : 46-56
                [1 ] Universidade Federal de São Paulo Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Federal de São Paulo Brazil

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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