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      Administration of Dexmedetomidine Does Not Produce Long-Term Protective Effect on Testicular Damage Post Testicular Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

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          Abstract

          Background

          After surgical correction of testicular torsion, up to 68% of ipsilateral testes undergo atrophy due to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Recent studies have shown that dexmedetomidine (Dex) alleviates IRI in various vital organs. However, those studies evaluated its protective effect on short-term reperfusion.

          Purpose

          We aimed to investigate whether Dex has a long-term protective effect against testicular injury after IRI.

          Materials and Methods

          A total of 24 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8/group): the control group (saline-infused rabbits without IRI), the IRI group (saline-injected rabbits with IRI), and the Dex group (Dex-injected rabbits with IRI). The spermatic cord of rabbits in IRI and Dex groups was ligated for 4 h, and 1 h before reperfusion, Dex was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 μg/kg body weight in group Dex, whereas saline was administered at the same dose to the IRI and control groups. Rabbits were kept alive for 4 weeks post reperfusion, then the testes were harvested, and the rabbits were euthanized.

          Results

          Four weeks post reperfusion, testicular volumes of the affected side decreased considerably in the IRI and Dex groups compared to the control group, with no significant difference between the IRI and Dex groups. Compared to the control group, the Johnson score and the mean seminiferous tubular diameters were significantly decreased in the IRI and Dex groups, but no significant differences were observed after administration of Dex. There were no significant differences in malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase levels between the groups treated with and without Dex.

          Conclusion

          Dex administration 3 h after ischemia and 1 h before reperfusion did not demonstrate a significant protective effect against testicular injury 4 weeks after IRI in rabbits. Further research is needed to confirm the potential therapeutic effects of Dex by varying the experimental conditions.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Dexmedetomidine

          Dexmedetomidine is an α2-adrenoceptor agonist with sedative, anxiolytic, sympatholytic, and analgesic-sparing effects, and minimal depression of respiratory function. It is potent and highly selective for α2-receptors with an α2:α1 ratio of 1620:1. Hemodynamic effects, which include transient hypertension, bradycardia, and hypotension, result from the drug’s peripheral vasoconstrictive and sympatholytic properties. Dexmedetomidine exerts its hypnotic action through activation of central pre- and postsynaptic α2-receptors in the locus coeruleus, thereby inducting a state of unconsciousness similar to natural sleep, with the unique aspect that patients remain easily rousable and cooperative. Dexmedetomidine is rapidly distributed and is mainly hepatically metabolized into inactive metabolites by glucuronidation and hydroxylation. A high inter-individual variability in dexmedetomidine pharmacokinetics has been described, especially in the intensive care unit population. In recent years, multiple pharmacokinetic non-compartmental analyses as well as population pharmacokinetic studies have been performed. Body size, hepatic impairment, and presumably plasma albumin and cardiac output have a significant impact on dexmedetomidine pharmacokinetics. Results regarding other covariates remain inconclusive and warrant further research. Although initially approved for intravenous use for up to 24 h in the adult intensive care unit population only, applications of dexmedetomidine in clinical practice have been widened over the past few years. Procedural sedation with dexmedetomidine was additionally approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2003 and dexmedetomidine has appeared useful in multiple off-label applications such as pediatric sedation, intranasal or buccal administration, and use as an adjuvant to local analgesia techniques.
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            Dexmedetomidine administration before, but not after, ischemia attenuates intestinal injury induced by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in rats.

             Zi Liu,  Xi Yao,  Shi Wen (2012)
            Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a devastating complication in the perioperative period. Dexmedetomidine is commonly applied in the perioperative period. The authors aimed to determine the effects of different doses of dexmedetomidine (given before or after intestinal ischemia) on intestinal I/R injury and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Intestinal I/R injury was produced in rat by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 1 h followed by 2 h reperfusion. Intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine was performed at 2.5, 5, and 10 μg · kg(-1) · h(-1) for 1 h before or after ischemic insult. In addition, yohimbine hydrochloride was administered intravenously to investigate the role of α2 adrenoreceptor in the intestinal protection conferred by dexmedetomidine. Intestinal I/R increased mortality of rats and caused notable intestinal injury, as evidenced by statistically significant increases in Chiu's scores; serum diamine oxidase and tumor necrosis factor-α concentration, accompanied by increases in the intestinal mucosal malondialdehyde concentration; myeloperoxidase activity; and epithelial cell apoptosis (all P < 0.05 vs. Sham). Except malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase, all changes were improved by the administration of 5 μg · kg(-1) · h(-1) dexmedetomidine before ischemia (all P < 0.05 vs. Injury) but not after ischemia. Infusion of 2.5 μg · kg(-1) · h(-1) dexmedetomidine before or after ischemia produced no beneficial effects, and infusion of 10 μg · kg(-1) · h(-1) dexmedetomidine led to severe hemodynamic suppression. Yohimbine abolished the intestinal protective effect of the 5 μg · kg(-1) · h(-1) dexmedetomidine infusion before ischemia and was accompanied by the disappearance of its antiapoptotic and antiinflammatory effect. Dexmedetomidine administration before, but not after, ischemia dose-dependently protects against I/R-induced intestinal injury, partly by inhibiting inflammatory response and intestinal mucosal epithelial apoptosis via α2 adrenoreceptor activation.
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              Dexmedetomidine Protects Mouse Brain from Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Inhibiting Neuronal Autophagy through Up-Regulating HIF-1α

              Stroke is the leading cause of death in China and produces a heavy socio-economic burden in the past decades. Previous studies have shown that dexmedetomidine (DEX) is neuroprotective after cerebral ischemia. However, the role of autophagy during DEX-mediated neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia is still unknown. In this study, we found that post-conditioning with DEX and DEX+3-methyladenine (3-MA) (autophagy inhibitor) reduced brain infarct size and improved neurological deficits compared with DEX+RAPA (autophagy inducer) 24 h after transient middle cerebral artery artery occlusion (tMCAO) model in mice. DEX inhibited the neuronal autophagy in the peri-ischemic brain, and increased viability and decreased apoptosis of primary cultured neurons in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model. DEX induced expression of Bcl-1 and p62, while reduced the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin 1 in primary cultured neurons through inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy. Meanwhile, DEX promoted the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) both in vivo and in vitro, and 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2), an inhibitor of HIF-1α, could reverse DEX-induced autophagic inhibition. In conclusion, our study suggests that post-conditioning with DEX at the beginning of reperfusion protects mouse brain from ischemia-reperfusion injury via inhibition of neuronal autophagy by upregulation of HIF-1α, which provides a potential therapeutic treatment for acute ischemic injury.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                27 January 2021
                2021
                : 15
                : 315-321
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Medicine, Nankai University , Tianjin, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Ultrasound, The First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital , Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jie Tang Department of Ultrasound, The First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital , Fuxing Road 28#, Beijing100853, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-10-5549-9056Fax +86-10-5549-9255 Email txiner@sina.vip.com
                Article
                293926
                10.2147/DDDT.S293926
                7850429
                33536744
                © 2021 Xiao et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 7, References: 28, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Research

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