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      Pathophysiology of Vascular Remodeling in Hypertension

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          Abstract

          Vascular remodeling refers to alterations in the structure of resistance vessels contributing to elevated systemic vascular resistance in hypertension. We start with some historical aspects, underscoring the importance of Glagov's contribution. We then move to some basic concepts on the biomechanics of blood vessels and explain the definitions proposed by Mulvany for specific forms of remodeling, especially inward eutrophic and inward hypertrophic. The available evidence for the existence of remodeled resistance vessels in hypertension comes next, with relatively more weight given to human, in comparison with animal data. Mechanisms are discussed. The impact of antihypertensive drug treatment on remodeling is described, again with emphasis on human data. Some details are given on the three mechanisms to date which point to remodeling resistance arteries as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. We terminate by considering the potential role of remodeling in the pathogenesis of endorgan damage and in the perpetuation of hypertension.

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          Most cited references56

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          Interleukin 10(IL-10) inhibits cytokine synthesis by human monocytes: an autoregulatory role of IL-10 produced by monocytes

          In the present study we demonstrate that human monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were able to produce high levels of interleukin 10 (IL-10), previously designated cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), in a dose dependent fashion. IL-10 was detectable 7 h after activation of the monocytes and maximal levels of IL-10 production were observed after 24-48 h. These kinetics indicated that the production of IL-10 by human monocytes was relatively late as compared to the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which were all secreted at high levels 4-8 h after activation. The production of IL-10 by LPS activated monocytes was, similar to that of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and G-CSF, inhibited by IL-4. Furthermore we demonstrate here that IL-10, added to monocytes, activated by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), LPS, or combinations of LPS and IFN-gamma at the onset of the cultures, strongly inhibited the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, GM-CSF, and G-CSF at the transcriptional level. Viral-IL-10, which has similar biological activities on human cells, also inhibited the production of TNF alpha and GM-CSF by monocytes following LPS activation. Activation of monocytes by LPS in the presence of neutralizing anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibodies resulted in the production of higher amounts of cytokines relative to LPS treatment alone, indicating that endogenously produced IL-10 inhibited the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, GM-CSF, and G-CSF. In addition, IL-10 had autoregulatory effects since it strongly inhibited IL-10 mRNA synthesis in LPS activated monocytes. Furthermore, endogenously produced IL-10 was found to be responsible for the reduction in class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression following activation of monocytes with LPS. Taken together our results indicate that IL-10 has important regulatory effects on immunological and inflammatory responses because of its capacity to downregulate class II MHC expression and to inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes.
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            Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases and matrix degrading activity in vulnerable regions of human atherosclerotic plaques.

            Dysregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism may contribute to vascular remodeling during the development and complication of human atherosclerotic lesions. We investigated the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of enzymes that degrade ECM components in human atherosclerotic plaques (n = 30) and in uninvolved arterial specimens (n = 11). We studied members of all three MMP classes (interstitial collagenase, MMP-1; gelatinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9; and stromelysin, MMP-3) and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs 1 and 2) by immunocytochemistry, zymography, and immunoprecipitation. Normal arteries stained uniformly for 72-kD gelatinase and TIMPs. In contrast, plaques' shoulders and regions of foam cell accumulation displayed locally increased expression of 92-kD gelatinase, stromelysin, and interstitial collagenase. However, the mere presence of MMP does not establish their catalytic capacity, as the zymogens lack activity, and TIMPs may block activated MMPs. All plaque extracts contained activated forms of gelatinases determined zymographically and by degradation of 3H-collagen type IV. To test directly whether atheromata actually contain active matrix-degrading enzymes in situ, we devised a method which allows the detection and microscopic localization of MMP enzymatic activity directly in tissue sections. In situ zymography revealed gelatinolytic and caseinolytic activity in frozen sections of atherosclerotic but not of uninvolved arterial tissues. The MMP inhibitors, EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, as well as recombinant TIMP-1, reduced these activities which colocalized with regions of increased immunoreactive MMP expression, i.e., the shoulders, core, and microvasculature of the plaques. Focal overexpression of activated MMP may promote destabilization and complication of atherosclerotic plaques and provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention.
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              Direct proinflammatory effect of C-reactive protein on human endothelial cells.

              The acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, the possible effects of CRP on vascular cells are not known. We tested the effects of CRP on expression of adhesion molecules in both human umbilical vein and coronary artery endothelial cells. Expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), and E-selectin was assessed by flow cytometry. Incubation with recombinant human CRP (10 microg/mL) for 24 hours induced an approximately 10-fold increase in expression of ICAM-1 and a significant expression of VCAM-1, whereas a 6-hour incubation induced significant E-selectin expression. Adhesion molecule induction was similar to that observed in endothelial cells activated with interleukin-1beta. In coronary artery endothelial cells, induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was already present at 5 microg/mL and reached a maximum at 50 microg/mL, at which point a substantial increase in expression of E-selectin was also evident. The CRP effect was dependent on presence of human serum in the culture medium, because no effect was seen in cells cultured with serum-free medium. In contrast, interleukin-1beta was able to induce adhesion molecule expression in the absence of human serum. CRP induces adhesion molecule expression in human endothelial cells in the presence of serum. These findings support the hypothesis that CRP may play a direct role in promoting the inflammatory component of atherosclerosis and present a potential target for the treatment of atherosclerosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Hypertens
                Int J Hypertens
                IJHT
                International Journal of Hypertension
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-0384
                2090-0392
                2013
                22 July 2013
                : 2013
                Affiliations
                1Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, National University of Cuyo, Avenida Libertador 80, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza, Argentina
                2Institute of Experimental Medicine and Biology of Cuyo (IMBECU), CONICET, Mendoza, Argentina
                3Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Plaza de Ramón y Cajal s.n., 28040 Madrid, Spain
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Kazuomi Kario

                Article
                10.1155/2013/808353
                3736482
                23970958
                0478d32c-9e66-4a9b-b188-5b4116852ee2
                Copyright © 2013 Nicolás F. Renna et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine
                Cardiovascular Medicine

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