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      Systematic parameterization of lignin for the CHARMM force field

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          Abstract

          We develop a comprehensive molecular mechanics force field for lignin and evaluate its performance in terms of thermodynamics and structure with respect to experimental observables. The developed force field can be used to model lignin polymers, including their covalent linkages to carbohydrates, and their interaction with other biomolecules.

          Abstract

          Lignin is an abundant aromatic biopolymer within plant cell walls formed through radical coupling chemistry, whose composition and topology can vary greatly depending on the biomass source. Computational modeling provides a complementary approach to traditional experimental techniques to probe lignin interactions, lignin structure, and lignin material properties. However, current modeling approaches are limited based on the subset of lignin chemistries covered by existing lignin force fields. To fill the gap, we developed a comprehensive lignin force field that accounts for more lignin–lignin and lignin–carbohydrate interlinkages than existing lignin force fields, and also greatly expands the lignin monomer chemistries that can be modeled beyond simple alcohols and into the rich mixture of natural lignin varieties. The development of this force field utilizes recent developments in parameterization methodology, and synthesizes them into a workflow that combines target data from multiple molecules simultaneously into a single consistent and comprehensive parameter set. The parameter set represents a significant improvement to alternatives for atomic modeling of diverse lignin topologies, more accurately reproducing experimental observables while also significantly reducing the error relative to quantum calculations. The improved energetics, as well as the rigid adherence to CHARMM parameterization philosophy, enables simulation of lignin within its biological context with greater accuracy than was previously possible. The lignin force field presented here is therefore a crucial first step towards modeling lignin structure across a broad range of environments, including within plant cell walls where lignin is complexed with carbohydrates and deconstructed by bacterial or fungal enzymes, or as it exists within industrial solvent mixtures. Future simulations enabled by this updated lignin force field will thus lead to better chemical and structural understanding of lignin, providing new insight into its role in biomass recalcitrance or probing the potential for lignin to be used within industrial processes.

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          Most cited references122

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          UCSF Chimera--a visualization system for exploratory research and analysis.

          The design, implementation, and capabilities of an extensible visualization system, UCSF Chimera, are discussed. Chimera is segmented into a core that provides basic services and visualization, and extensions that provide most higher level functionality. This architecture ensures that the extension mechanism satisfies the demands of outside developers who wish to incorporate new features. Two unusual extensions are presented: Multiscale, which adds the ability to visualize large-scale molecular assemblies such as viral coats, and Collaboratory, which allows researchers to share a Chimera session interactively despite being at separate locales. Other extensions include Multalign Viewer, for showing multiple sequence alignments and associated structures; ViewDock, for screening docked ligand orientations; Movie, for replaying molecular dynamics trajectories; and Volume Viewer, for display and analysis of volumetric data. A discussion of the usage of Chimera in real-world situations is given, along with anticipated future directions. Chimera includes full user documentation, is free to academic and nonprofit users, and is available for Microsoft Windows, Linux, Apple Mac OS X, SGI IRIX, and HP Tru64 Unix from http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/chimera/. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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            Matplotlib: A 2D Graphics Environment

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                GRCHFJ
                Green Chemistry
                Green Chem.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                1463-9262
                1463-9270
                January 2 2019
                2019
                : 21
                : 1
                : 109-122
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Biosciences Center
                [2 ]National Renewable Energy Laboratory
                [3 ]Golden
                [4 ]USA
                [5 ]UT/ORNL Center for Molecular Biophysics
                [6 ]Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                [7 ]Oak Ridge
                [8 ]Department of Biochemistry and DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center
                [9 ]University of Wisconsin
                [10 ]Madison
                [11 ]National Bioenergy Center
                Article
                10.1039/C8GC03209B
                04820088-70f1-4522-88cf-5e9d4a02faa0
                © 2019

                Free to read

                http://rsc.li/journals-terms-of-use#chorus

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