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      Acute and Chronic Regulation of the Renal Na +/H + Exchanger NHE3 in Rats with STZ-Induced Diabetes mellitus

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          Background: Early stages of diabetic nephropathy are characterized by alterations of glomerular filtration, increased tubular sodium and water reabsorption, and systemic volume expansion, which may be a major cause for the development of hypertension. As a significant fraction of renal salt and water transport is mediated by the proximal tubular Na<sup>+</sup>/H<sup>+</sup> exchanger NHE3, we investigated its regulation in rats with STZ-induced diabetes mellitus. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected +/– streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg), and sacrificed after 2, 7 or 14 days. Renal cortical BBM vesicles were prepared to measure Na<sup>+</sup>/H<sup>+</sup> exchange (NHE) activity and NHE3 protein abundance. Cortical NHE3 mRNA was extracted to perform Northern blot analysis. Pharmacological inhibitors were used in vivo and in vitro in order to identify isoform specificity conferring changes in NHE activity mediated by the diabetic milieu. Results: Compared to control rats, STZ rats were clearly hyperglycemic at all time points studied. NHE activity was significantly increased by 40 and 37% in diabetic rats after 7 and 14 days, respectively, but not after 2 days. The increase in Na<sup>+</sup>/H<sup>+</sup> exchange activity was not inhibited by HOE-642 (3 µ M). Administration of exogenous insulin to diabetic rats resulted in lower blood sugars, but not NHE activity. Moreover, serum glucose concentration did not correlate with NHE activity in any subgroup nor in all animals analyzed together. However, in STZ rats supplemented with exogenous insulin NHE activity was positively correlated with serum insulin concentrations (r = 0.86, p < 0.01). In vivo, the increase in NHE activity induced by STZ could be completely inhibited when rats were fed 6 ppm of HOE-642 with the diet over 14 days. The changes in Na<sup>+</sup>/H<sup>+</sup> exchange activity were not paralleled by changes in NHE3 protein or mRNA abundance in diabetic rats at any of the time points investigated. Conclusions: These results suggest that proximal tubular Na/H exchange activity is modified in the early stage of diabetes mellitus.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

          A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.
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            Renal and intestinal absorptive defects in mice lacking the NHE3 Na+/H+ exchanger.

            NHE3 is one of five plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchangers and is encoded by the mouse gene Slc9a3. It is expressed on apical membranes of renal proximal tubule and intestinal epithelial cells and is thought to play a major role in NaCl and HCO3- absorption. As the distribution of NHE3 overlaps with that of the NHE2 isoform in kidney and intestine, the function and relative importance of NHE3 in vivo is unclear. To analyse its physiological functions, we generated mice lacking NHE3 function. Homozygous mutant (Slc9a3-/-) mice survive, but they have slight diarrhoea and blood analysis revealed that they are mildly acidotic. HCO3- and fluid absorption are sharply reduced in proximal convoluted tubules, blood pressure is reduced and there is a severe absorptive defect in the intestine. Thus, compensatory mechanisms must limit gross perturbations of electrolyte and acid-base balance. Plasma aldosterone is increased in NHE3-deficient mice, and expression of both renin and the AE1 (Slc4a1) Cl-/HCO3- exchanger mRNAs are induced in kidney. In the colon, epithelial Na+ channel activity is increased and colonic H+,K+-ATPase mRNA is massively induced. These data show that NHE3 is the major absorptive Na+/H+ exchanger in kidney and intestine, and that lack of the exchanger impairs acid-base balance and Na+-fluid volume homeostasis.
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              Hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell apoptosis in pancreatic islets of Psammomys obesus during development of diabetes.

              The gerbil Psammomys obesus develops nutrition-dependent diabetes associated with moderate obesity. The disease is characterized by initial hyperinsulinemia, progressing to hypoinsulinemia associated with depleted pancreatic insulin stores. The contribution of changes in beta-cell turnover to insulin deficiency was investigated in vivo during transition to overt diabetes. Normo glycemic diabetes-prone P. obesus animals who were given a high-calorie diet developed hyperglycemia within 4 days, which was found to be associated with a progressive decline in pancreatic insulin content. This was accompanied by a transient increase in beta-cell proliferative activity and by a prolonged increase in the rate of beta-cell death, culminating in disruption of islet architecture. The hypothesis that "glucotoxicity" was responsible for these in vivo changes was investigated in vitro in primary islet cultures. Exposure of islets from diabetes-prone P. obesus to high glucose levels resulted in a dose-dependent increase in beta-cell DNA fragmentation. In contrast, high glucose levels did not induce DNA fragmentation in rat islets, whereas islets from a diabetes-resistant P. obesus line exhibited a reduced and delayed response. Aminoguanidine did not prevent glucose-induced beta-cell DNA fragmentation in vitro, suggesting that formation of nitric oxide and/or advanced glycation end products plays no major role. Elevated glucose concentrations stimulated beta-cell proliferation in both rat and P. obesus islets. However, unlike the marked long-lasting effect in rat islets, only a transient and reduced proliferative response was observed in P. obesus islets; furthermore, beta-cell proliferation was inhibited after prolonged exposure to elevated glucose levels. These results suggest that hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell death coupled with reduced proliferative capacity may contribute to the insulin deficiency and deterioration of glucose homeostasis in P. obesus. Similar adverse effects of hyperglycemia could play a role in the evolution of type 2 diabetes in genetically susceptible individuals.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Physiol
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                January 2006
                09 January 2006
                : 102
                : 2
                : p27-p35
                aDepartment of Physiology, University of Zurich-Irchel, bRenal Division, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland
                89091 Nephron Physiol 2006;102:p27–p35
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 36, Pages: 1
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                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Kidney, NHE3, Streptozotocin, Diabetes


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