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The Effect of Specific Sling Exercises on the Functional Movement Screen Score in Adolescent Volleyball Players: A Preliminary Study

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      Abstract

      The existing data indicate that the result of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) test influences the likelihood of subsequent injury in professional athletes. Therefore, exercises increasing test scores of the FMS may be useful at various stages of sports activity. This study evaluated the effects of the NEURAC sling exercises method on the FMS test score in teenage volleyball players. The study was conducted on 15 volleyball players aged 14 years. The FMS test was performed three times interspersed with a two-month interval. Between the first and the second assessment, neither additional treatment nor training was applied, while between the second and the third assessment, the participants performed stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method. Training was carried out twice a week, for eight weeks. The analysis showed that between the first and the second measurement, no significant differences occurred. The use of specific sling exercises caused a significant improvement in FMS results (p ≤ 0.01) between the first and the third, as well as the second and the third measurement. The applied stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method positively influenced the FMS test result in male subjects practicing volleyball. Performance of such exercises also resulted in more than 90% of the subjects having a total FMS test score ≥ 17, which may be important in the prevention of injuries. The preliminary results indicate that this type of exercise should be included in a teenage volleyball training routine.

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      Deficits in neuromuscular control of the trunk predict knee injury risk: a prospective biomechanical-epidemiologic study.

      Female athletes are at significantly greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than male athletes in the same high-risk sports. Decreased trunk (core) neuromuscular control may compromise dynamic knee stability. (1) Increased trunk displacement after sudden force release would be associated with increased knee injury risk; (2) coronal (lateral), not sagittal, plane displacement would be the strongest predictor of knee ligament injury; (3) logistic regression of factors related to core stability would accurately predict knee, ligament, and ACL injury risk; and (4) the predictive value of these models would differ between genders. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. In this study, 277 collegiate athletes (140 female and 137 male) were prospectively tested for trunk displacement after a sudden force release. Analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression identified predictors of risk in athletes who sustained knee injury. Twenty-five athletes (11 female and 14 male) sustained knee injuries over a 3-year period. Trunk displacement was greater in athletes with knee, ligament, and ACL injuries than in uninjured athletes (P < .05). Lateral displacement was the strongest predictor of ligament injury (P = .009). A logistic regression model, consisting of trunk displacements, proprioception, and history of low back pain, predicted knee ligament injury with 91% sensitivity and 68% specificity (P = .001). This model predicted knee, ligament, and ACL injury risk in female athletes with 84%, 89%, and 91% accuracy, but only history of low back pain was a significant predictor of knee ligament injury risk in male athletes. Factors related to core stability predicted risk of athletic knee, ligament, and ACL injuries with high sensitivity and moderate specificity in female, but not male, athletes.
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        The effects of core proprioception on knee injury: a prospective biomechanical-epidemiological study.

        In sports involving pivoting and landing, female athletes suffer knee injury at a greater rate than male athletes. Proprioceptive deficits in control of the body's core may affect dynamic stability of the knee. Female, but not male, athletes who suffered a knee injury during a 3-year follow-up period would demonstrate decreased core proprioception at baseline testing as compared with uninjured athletes. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Study subjects were 277 collegiate athletes (140 female, 137 male) who were prospectively tested for core proprioception by active and passive proprioceptive repositioning. Athletes were monitored for injury for 3 years. An ANOVA and multivariate logistic regression were used to test whether core proprioception was related to knee injuries in athletes. Twenty-five athletes sustained knee injuries (11 women, 14 men). Deficits in active proprioceptive repositioning were observed in women with knee injuries (2.2 degrees ) and ligament/meniscal injuries (2.4 degrees ) compared with uninjured women (1.5 degrees , P or= .05). Uninjured women demonstrated significantly less average error in active proprioceptive repositioning than uninjured men (1.5 degrees vs 1.7 degrees , P
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          Pre-participation screening: the use of fundamental movements as an assessment of function - part 1.

          To prepare an athlete for the wide variety of activities needed to participate in their sport, the analysis of fundamental movements should be incorporated into pre-participation screening in order to determine who possesses, or lacks, the ability to perform certain essential movements. In a series of two articles, the background and rationale for the analysis of fundamental movement will be provided. In addition, one such evaluation tool that attempts to assess the fundamental movement patterns performed by an individual, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS(™)), will be described. Three of the seven fundamental movement patterns that comprise the FMS(™) are described in detail in Part I: deep squat, hurdle step, and in-line lunge. Part II of this series, which will be published in the August issue of NAJSPT, will provide a brief review of the analysis of fundamental movements, as well a detailed description of the four additional patterns that complement those presented in Part I (to complete the total of seven fundamental movement patterns which comprise the FMS(™)): shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability.The intent of this two part series is to introduce the concept of the evaluation of fundamental movements, whether it is the FMS(™) system or a different system devised by another clinician. Such a functional assessment should be incorporated into pre-participation screening in order to determine whether the athlete has the essential movements needed to participate in sports activities with a decreased risk of injury.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Department of Kinesitherapy and Special Methods in Physiotherapy, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education, Katowice, Poland
            2The Walerian Łukasiński General High School nr 7 in Dąbrowa Górnicza, Poland
            Author notes
            Linek Pawel Department of Kinesitherapy and Special Methods in Physiotherapy The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education, 40-065, Mikolowska 72B, Poland Phone: +48 661 768 601
            Contributors
            Journal
            J Hum Kinet
            J Hum Kinet
            hukin
            raon
            Journal of Human Kinetics
            De Gruyter Open
            1640-5544
            1899-7562
            1 December 2016
            15 December 2016
            : 54
            : 83-90
            5187962
            hukin-2016-0037
            10.1515/hukin-2016-0037
            © 2016 Editorial Committee of Journal of Human Kinetics
            Counts
            Pages: 8
            Categories
            Section II – Exercise Physiology & Sports Medicine

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