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      Vision and Aging

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      Annual Review of Vision Science

      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          Research on aging and vision has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Changes in our visual capacities in later adulthood have the potential to impact our ability to perform common everyday visual tasks such as recognizing objects, reading, engaging in mobility activities, and driving, thus influencing the quality of our life and well-being. Here, we discuss several common visual problems in older adults that cause performance problems in the visual tasks of everyday living and when exacerbated are related to the development of common eye conditions and diseases of aging.

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          Most cited references 137

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            The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition.

            A theory is proposed to account for some of the age-related differences reported in measures of Type A or fluid cognition. The central hypothesis in the theory is that increased age in adulthood is associated with a decrease in the speed with which many processing operations can be executed and that this reduction in speed leads to impairments in cognitive functioning because of what are termed the limited time mechanism and the simultaneity mechanism. That is, cognitive performance is degraded when processing is slow because relevant operations cannot be successfully executed (limited time) and because the products of early processing may no longer be available when later processing is complete (simultaneity). Several types of evidence, such as the discovery of considerable shared age-related variance across various measures of speed and large attenuation of the age-related influences on cognitive measures after statistical control of measures of speed, are consistent with this theory.
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              Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group.

              Many risk factors for hip fractures have been suggested but have not been evaluated in a comprehensive prospective study. We assessed potential risk factors, including bone mass, in 9516 white women 65 years of age or older who had had no previous hip fracture. We then followed these women at 4-month intervals for an average of 4.1 years to determine the frequency of hip fracture. All reports of hip fractures were validated by review of x-ray films. During the follow-up period, 192 women had first hip fractures not due to motor vehicle accidents. In multivariable age-adjusted analyses, a maternal history of hip fracture doubled the risk of hip fracture (relative risk, 2.0; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.4 to 2.9), and the increase in risk remained significant after adjustment for bone density. Women who had gained weight since the age of 25 had a lower risk. The risk was higher among women who had previous fractures of any type after the age of 50, were tall at the age of 25, rated their own health as fair or poor, had previous hyperthyroidism, had been treated with long-acting benzodiazepines or anticonvulsant drugs, ingested greater amounts of caffeine, or spent four hours a day or less on their feet. Examination findings associated with an increased risk included the inability to rise from a chair without using one's arms, poor depth perception, poor contrast sensitivity, and tachycardia at rest. Low calcaneal bone density was also an independent risk factor. The incidence of hip fracture ranged from 1.1 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.5 to 1.6) per 1,000 woman-years among women with no more than two risk factors and normal calcaneal bone density for their age to 27 (95 percent confidence interval, 20 to 34) per 1,000 woman-years among those with five or more risk factors and bone density in the lowest third for their age. Women with multiple risk factors and low bone density have an especially high risk of hip fracture. Maintaining body weight, walking for exercise, avoiding long-acting benzodiazepines, minimizing caffeine intake, and treating impaired visual function are among the steps that may decrease the risk.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Vision Science
                Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci.
                Annual Reviews
                2374-4642
                2374-4650
                October 14 2016
                October 14 2016
                : 2
                : 1
                : 255-271
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama 35294; email:
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114550
                28532355
                © 2016

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