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      Differential Expression of Genes from Nitrate-Tolerant Rat Aorta


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          Organic nitrates act as vasodilators and have long been used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, the therapeutic effect of nitrates is limited by induction of nitrate tolerance which is associated with endothelial dysfunction and enhanced vasoconstriction. Multiple mechanisms cause nitrate tolerance including alterations in gene expression. To identify genes whose expression is altered due to chronic treatment with nitroglycerin (NTG), nitrate-tolerant rats were made by infusion of NTG for 3 days (10 µg/kg/min) using an osmotic minipump. We constructed a PCR-selected cDNA subtracted library from NTG-treated and vehicle-treated rat aortas. Screening of ∼500 clones in the subtracted library showed that four genes were regulated by NTG treatment. Specifically, mRNA levels of β-globin, tropoelastin, gelsolin and a small G protein were confirmed to be upregulated consistently by NTG treatment. These identified genes may play important roles in the development of nitrate tolerance and represent promising candidates to understand the mechanisms of nitrate tolerance and endothelial dysfunction in the vasculature.

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          Delayed Retraction of Filopodia in Gelsolin Null Mice

          Growth cones extend dynamic protrusions called filopodia and lamellipodia as exploratory probes that signal the direction of neurite growth. Gelsolin, as an actin filament-severing protein, may serve an important role in the rapid shape changes associated with growth cone structures. In wild-type (wt) hippocampal neurons, antibodies against gelsolin labeled the neurite shaft and growth cone. The behavior of filopodia in cultured hippocampal neurons from embryonic day 17 wt and gelsolin null (Gsn− ) mice (Witke, W., A.H. Sharpe, J.H. Hartwig, T. Azuma, T.P. Stossel, and D.J. Kwiatkowski. 1995. Cell. 81:41–51.) was recorded with time-lapse video microscopy. The number of filopodia along the neurites was significantly greater in Gsn− mice and gave the neurites a studded appearance. Dynamic studies suggested that most of these filopodia were formed from the region of the growth cone and remained as protrusions from the newly consolidated shaft after the growth cone advanced. Histories of individual filopodia in Gsn− mice revealed elongation rates that did not differ from controls but an impaired retraction phase that probably accounted for the increased number of filopodia long the neutrite shaft. Gelsolin appears to function in the initiation of filopodial retraction and in its smooth progression.
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            Nitrate therapy for angina pectoris. Current concepts about mechanism of action and evaluation of currently available preparations

            S CORWIN (1985)
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              The effect of triamterene on myocardial phosphodiesterase and adenylate cyclase


                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                August 2002
                12 August 2002
                : 39
                : 4
                : 304-310
                Center for Cardiovascular Research, Medical Center, University of Rochester, N.Y., USA
                65542 J Vasc Res 2002;39:304–310
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 29, Pages: 7
                Internet Discussion Forum

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Rat aorta,Subtractive hybridization,Nitrate tolerance


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