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Mycoremediation of azole antifungal agents using in vitro cultures of Lentinula edodes

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      Abstract

      Azole antifungal agents are widely used as active ingredients in antifungal pharmaceuticals and agricultural fungicides. An increase in the use of azole antifungals has resulted in an increase in the concentration of these compounds in wastewater and surface water, with potential implications for agriculture. In the present study, bifonazole (BIF) and clotrimazole (CTZ) were selected for investigation because of their widespread use in topical formulations and persistence in the environment. The mycoremediation capacity of BIF and CTZ by mycelia of Lentinula edodes in in vitro culture was evaluated. The main aim of this study was to identify the presumable biodegradation products of the investigated active pharmaceutical substances using the LC/MS/MS method. For this purpose, the media were enriched with the following active pharmaceutical ingredients selected for this study: BIF powder, CTZ powder, and BIF cream, each of them at the same concentration of 0.1 mg/mL. Subsequently, thin-layer chromatography coupled with densitometry was used to evaluate the content of BIF and CTZ in mycelium from in vitro cultures of L. edodes. The degradation process was found to affect primarily the imidazole moiety of both investigated compounds. In addition, the amounts of undegraded investigated compounds were found to be 4.98, 9.26, and 4.56 mg/g dry weight for BIF powder, CTZ powder, and BIF cream, respectively. Therefore, the findings of this study revealed that L. edodes could be considered for remediation of pollution caused by azole antifungal agents.

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      Most cited references 27

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          The occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and surface waters of the lower Tyne catchment.

          This paper presents the results of a survey of the wastewater effluent and surface waters of the lower river Tyne, UK. Samples were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry following solid phase extraction, for the presence of 13 pharmaceuticals selected from the priority lists of the UK Environment Agency and the Oslo and Paris Commission (OSPAR). The pharmaceutical compounds measured were acetyl-sulfamethoxazole, clofibric acid, clotrimazole, dextropropoxyphene, diclofenac, erythromycin, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, paracetamol, propranolol, sulfamethoxazole, tamoxifen and trimethoprim. Of the wastewater treatment works (WTW) samples (n=9) analysed, all compounds except sulfamethoxazole and acetyl-sulfamethoxazole were detected at concentrations ranging from 11 to 69,570 ng l(-1) (in raw effluent). In the surface water samples (n=18), clotrimazole, dextropropoxyphene, erythromycin, ibuprofen, propranolol, tamoxifen and trimethoprim were detected at concentrations ranging from 4 to 2370 ng l(-1). Results of this study show that various pharmaceutical compounds are effectively reduced during their passage through a tertiary wastewater treatment works, whilst others are sufficiently persistent to occur in estuarine systems.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2162 9631, GRID grid.5522.0, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, , Jagiellonian University Medical College, ; 9 Medyczna Street, 30–688 Kraków, Poland
            [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2162 9631, GRID grid.5522.0, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, , Jagiellonian University Medical College, ; 9 Medyczna Street, 30–688 Kraków, Poland
            [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2162 9631, GRID grid.5522.0, Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical College, , Jagiellonian University, ; 9 Medyczna Street, 30–688 Kraków, Poland
            Contributors
            agata.kryczyk@uj.edu.pl
            Journal
            3 Biotech
            3 Biotech
            3 Biotech
            Springer International Publishing (Cham )
            2190-572X
            2190-5738
            9 May 2019
            9 May 2019
            June 2019
            : 9
            : 6
            6509311
            1733
            10.1007/s13205-019-1733-5
            © The Author(s) 2019

            Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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            © King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

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