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      Home peripheral nerve catheters: the first 24 months of experience at a children’s hospital

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          Abstract

          Context

          Home peripheral nerve catheters (PNCs) have become common practice for adult patients after major orthopedic surgery. However, use in pediatric patients is a recent application.

          Objectives

          The purpose of this study was to review the demographics and outcomes of pediatric patients receiving a PNC at our institution.

          Methods

          This retrospective study included patients from October 2012 through October 2014 undergoing orthopedic procedures with a PNC placed for postoperative pain management.

          Results

          A total of 118 patients aged 3.2–25.3 years were identified. The types of catheters included femoral (80.5%), interscalene (11.9%), sciatic (5.9%), and supraclavicular (1.7%). The majority of patients were discharged to home on the day of surgery (77.1%). In the postanesthetic care unit, the average pain score was 2.5, the incidence of nausea/emesis was 5.9%, and the need for opioid administration was 50.8%. There were no major complications. Minor complications included a 7.6% rate of early catheter removal with 5.9% of those due to catheter leakage and an unsecure dressing. There was one case of metallic taste in the mouth without other symptoms of local anesthetic toxicity that resolved without further complication.

          Conclusion

          The implementation of a home PNC program in pediatric patients at our institution has been highly successful with a high rate of ambulatory catheters, low pain scores, low rates of nausea and vomiting, and no serious complications. Minor complications included leaking of the catheter and early discontinuation of the catheter.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Continuous peripheral nerve blocks: a review of the published evidence.

           Brian Ilfeld (2011)
          A continuous peripheral nerve block, also termed "perineural local anesthetic infusion," involves the percutaneous insertion of a catheter adjacent to a peripheral nerve, followed by local anesthetic administration via the catheter, providing anesthesia/analgesia for multiple days or even months. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks may be provided in the hospital setting, but the use of lightweight, portable pumps permits ambulatory infusion as well. This technique's most common application is providing analgesia after surgical procedures. However, additional indications include treating intractable hiccups; inducing a sympathectomy and vasodilation to increase blood flow after a vascular accident, digit transfer/replantation, or limb salvage; alleviating vasospasm of Raynaud disease; and treating peripheral embolism and chronic pain such as complex regional pain syndrome, phantom limb pain, trigeminal neuralgia, and cancer-induced pain. After trauma, perineural infusion can provide analgesia during transportation to a distant treatment center, or while simply awaiting surgical repair. Catheter insertion may be accomplished using many possible modalities, including nerve stimulation, ultrasound guidance, paresthesia induction, fluoroscopic imaging, and simple tactile perceptions ("facial click"). Either a nonstimulating epidural-type catheter may be used, or a "stimulating catheter" that delivers electrical current to its tip. Administered infusate generally includes exclusively long-acting, dilute, local anesthetic delivered as a bolus only, basal only, or basal-bolus combination. Documented benefits appear to be dependent on successfully improving analgesia, and include decreasing baseline/breakthrough/dynamic pain, supplemental analgesic requirements, opioid-related side effects, and sleep disturbances. In some cases, patient satisfaction and ambulation/functioning may be improved; an accelerated resumption of passive joint range-of-motion realized; and the time until discharge readiness as well as actual discharge from the hospital or rehabilitation center achieved. Lastly, postoperative joint inflammation and inflammatory markers may be decreased. Nearly all benefits occur during the infusion itself, but several randomized controlled trials suggest that in some situations there are prolonged benefits after catheter removal as well. Easily rectified minor complications occur somewhat frequently, but major risks including clinically relevant infection and nerve injury are relatively rare. This article is an evidence-based review of the published literature involving continuous peripheral nerve blocks.
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            Continuous peripheral nerve blocks in hospital wards after orthopedic surgery: a multicenter prospective analysis of the quality of postoperative analgesia and complications in 1,416 patients.

            Continuous peripheral nerve block (CPNB) is the technique of choice for postoperative analgesia after painful orthopedic surgery. However, the incidence of neurologic and infectious adverse events in the postoperative period are not well established. This issue was the aim of the study. Patients scheduled to undergo orthopedic surgery performed with a CPNB were prospectively included during 1 yr in a multicenter study. Efficacy of postoperative analgesia, bacteriologic cultures of the catheter, and acute neurologic and infectious adverse events were evaluated after surgery in 1,416 patients at arrival in the postanesthesia care unit, at hour 1, and every 24 h up to day 5. Risk factors for adverse events were determined using logistic regression. The median duration of CPNB was 56 h. Both general anesthesia and CPNB were performed in 73.6% of the patients. Postoperative analgesia was effective in 96.3%, but an increase in pain scores was noted at hour 24 (P = 0.01). Hypoesthesia or numbness occurred in 3% and 2.2%, respectively, and paresthesia occurred in 1.5%. Three neural lesions (0.21%) were noted after continuous femoral nerve block. Two of these patients were anesthetized during block procedure. Nerve damage completely resolved 36 h to 10 weeks later. Cultures from 28.7% of the catheters were positive. Three percent of patients had local inflammatory signs. The bacterial species most frequently found were coagulase-negative staphylococcus (61%) and gram-negative bacillus (21.6%). A Staphylococcus aureus psoas abscess (0.07%) was reported in one diabetic woman. Independent risk factors for paresthesia/dysesthesia were postoperative monitoring in intensive care, age less than 40 yr, and use of bupivacaine. Risk factors for local inflammation/infection were postoperative monitoring in intensive care, catheter duration greater than 48 h, male sex, and absence of antibiotic prophylaxis. CPNB is an effective technique for postoperative analgesia. Minor incidents and bacterial colonization of catheters are frequent, with no adverse clinical consequences in the large majority of cases. Major neurologic and infectious adverse events are rare.
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              Continuous peripheral nerve blockade for inpatient and outpatient postoperative analgesia in children.

              This is an audit of the continuous peripheral nerve blockade (CPNB) program that was implemented at our institution to provide postoperative analgesia after orthopedic procedures in children. We reviewed the departmental regional anesthesia registry and the medical records of consecutive children who received CPNB for postoperative analgesia at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between February 2003 and July 2006. Patients were prospectively followed until cessation of the effects of CPNB and/or resolution of any related complications. Data collected contemporaneously included presence of sensory and motor blockade, pain scores in inpatients, opioid administration, and complications related to CPNB. A total of 226 peripheral nerve catheters were placed in 217 patients. One hundred eight patients (112 catheters) were discharged home with CPNB. The ages ranged from 4 to 18 yr (13.7 +/- 3.4). Local anesthetic solution (0.125% bupivacaine [n = 164], 0.1% ropivacaine [n = 12], or 0.15% ropivacaine [n = 27]) was infused at an initial rate of 2-12 mL/h based on patients' weights and locations of catheters. The mean duration of local anesthetic infusion was 48.4 +/- 29.3 h (range 0-160 h). The percentage of patients who did not require any opioids in the first 8, 24, and 48 h after surgery was 56%, 26%, and 21%, respectively. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was 14% (13% in outpatients, 15% in inpatients). Complications were noted in 2.8% of patients. Three patients had prolonged numbness (>24 h) that resolved spontaneously; one developed superficial cellulitis that resolved with a course of antibiotics; one had difficulty removing the catheter at home and one developed tinnitus 24 h after starting CPNB that resolved quickly after clamping of the catheter followed by removal. It is feasible to implement a CPNB program to provide an alternative method of inpatient and outpatient postoperative analgesia after orthopedic surgery in children when appropriate expertise is available. Patient and family education along with frequent follow-up are crucial to detect and address adverse events promptly.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2016
                18 November 2016
                : 9
                : 1067-1072
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus
                [2 ]Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens
                [3 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, The Ohio State University
                [4 ]Department of Orthopedics, Nationwide Children’s Hospital
                [5 ]Department of Orthopedics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Candice Burrier, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, 700 Children’s Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, USA, Tel +1 614 722 4200, Fax +1 614 722 4203, Email Candice.Burrier@ 123456Nationwidechildrens.org
                Article
                jpr-9-1067
                10.2147/JPR.S110947
                5125993
                © 2016 Gable et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                peripheral nerve catheter, pediatric, regional anesthesia

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