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      Impact of duration of antibiotic prophylaxis on rates of surgical site infection (SSI) in patients undergoing mastectomy without immediate reconstruction, comparing a single prophylactic dose versus continued antibiotic prophylaxis postoperatively: a multicentre, double-blinded randomised control trial protocol

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          In breast surgeries, prophylactic antibiotics given before the surgical incision as per Joint Commission Surgical Care Improvement Project guidelines have been shown to decrease the rate of postoperative infections. There is, however, no clear consensus on postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing mastectomy with indwelling drains. This trial protocol proposes to study the difference in rates of surgical site infection (SSI) with or without continuation of postoperative antibiotics in patients undergoing mastectomy without immediate reconstruction and with indwelling drains.

          Methods and analysis

          In this multicentre, double-blinded clinical trial, all patients undergoing mastectomy (without immediate reconstruction) will receive a single prophylactic dose of preoperative antibiotics at induction of anaesthesia and will then get randomised to either continue antibiotic prophylaxis or a placebo postoperatively, for the duration of indwelling drains. The primary and secondary outcomes will be development of an SSI and antibiotic-associated adverse effects, respectively. Data will be collected through a standard questionnaire by wound assessors. Intention-to-treat analysis will be carried out using STATA V.12. For categorical variables, frequencies and percentages will be assessed by χ 2 test/Fisher’s exact test as appropriate. The quantitative variables will be computed by their mean±SD or median (IQR) and will be assessed by independent t-test/Mann-Whitney test as appropriate. Unadjusted and adjusted relative risk with their 95% CI will be reported using Cox proportional regression. A p value of <0.05 will be considered statistically significant.

          Ethics and dissemination

          Ethical approval has been obtained from each site’s Ethical Review Board. The study background and procedure will be explained to the study participants and informed consent will be obtained. Participation in the study is voluntary. All data will be deidentified and kept confidential. The study findings will be published in scientific media and authorship guidelines of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors will be followed.

          Trial registration number

          NCT04577846. (patient recruitment)

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          Most cited references 24

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          SPIRIT 2013 explanation and elaboration: guidance for protocols of clinical trials

          High quality protocols facilitate proper conduct, reporting, and external review of clinical trials. However, the completeness of trial protocols is often inadequate. To help improve the content and quality of protocols, an international group of stakeholders developed the SPIRIT 2013 Statement (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials). The SPIRIT Statement provides guidance in the form of a checklist of recommended items to include in a clinical trial protocol. This SPIRIT 2013 Explanation and Elaboration paper provides important information to promote full understanding of the checklist recommendations. For each checklist item, we provide a rationale and detailed description; a model example from an actual protocol; and relevant references supporting its importance. We strongly recommend that this explanatory paper be used in conjunction with the SPIRIT Statement. A website of resources is also available (www.spirit-statement.org). The SPIRIT 2013 Explanation and Elaboration paper, together with the Statement, should help with the drafting of trial protocols. Complete documentation of key trial elements can facilitate transparency and protocol review for the benefit of all stakeholders.
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            Clinical practice guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery.

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              Antibiotics and hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a systematic review.

              A systematic review of studies that investigated the association of antibiotics with hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) was undertaken to summarize the strength of the evidence for this relationship. The results from the studies identified were considered after critically reviewing the design and conduct of each study. Although the majority of studies found an association with various antibiotics, antibiotic classes or components of antibiotic administration, most were limited in their ability to establish a causal relationship by the use of incorrect control groups, the presence of bias, inadequate control of confounding and small sample sizes. The limitations identified in this review prevented the pooling of results in a meta-analysis. Two studies of reasonable quality suggested an association between clindamycin, cephalosporins, penicillins and CDAD. Well-designed studies grounded in epidemiological principles are needed to identify true risk factors for CDAD and to provide reliable estimates of the strength of association.

                Author and article information

                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                9 July 2021
                : 11
                : 7
                [1 ]departmentSurgery , Aga Khan University , Karachi, Pakistan
                [2 ]Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College , Karachi, Pakistan
                [3 ]Dow University of Health Sciences , Karachi, Pakistan
                [4 ]departmentInternal Medicine , Aga Khan University , Karachi, Pakistan
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Abida K Sattar; abida.sattar@ 123456aku.edu
                © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

                This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:  http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                Funded by: Department of Surgery Research Fund and Dean’s Research Fund, Aga Khan University Hospital;
                Award ID: N/A
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                adult oncology, breast surgery, plastic & reconstructive surgery, clinical trials


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