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      Changes in saccharin preference behavior as a primary outcome to evaluate pain and analgesia in acetic acid-induced visceral pain in mice

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          Abstract

          Reflex-based procedures are important measures in preclinical pain studies that evaluate stimulated behaviors. These procedures, however, are insufficient to capture the complexity of the pain experience, which is often associated with the depression of several innate behaviors. While recent studies have made efforts to evidence the suppression of some positively motivated behaviors in certain pain models, they are still far from being routinely used as readouts for analgesic screening. Here, we characterized and compared the effect of the analgesic ibuprofen (Ibu) and the stimulant, caffeine, in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior. Intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (AA) served as a noxious stimulus to stimulate a writhing response or depress saccharin preference and locomotor activity (LMA) in mice. AA injection caused the maximum number of writhes between 5 and 20 minutes after administration, and writhing almost disappeared 1 hour later. AA-treated mice showed signs of depression-like behaviors after writhing resolution, as evidenced by reduced locomotion and saccharin preference for at least 4 and 6 hours, respectively. Depression-like behaviors resolved within 24 hours after AA administration. A dose of Ibu (40 mg/kg) – inactive to reduce AA-induced abdominal writhing – administered before or after AA injection significantly reverted pain-induced saccharin preference deficit. The same dose of Ibu also significantly reverted the AA-depressed LMA, but only when it was administered after AA injection. Caffeine restored locomotion – but not saccharin preference – in AA-treated mice, thus suggesting that the reduction in saccharin preference – but not in locomotion – was specifically sensitive to analgesics. In conclusion, AA-induced acute pain attenuated saccharin preference and LMA beyond the resolution of writhing behavior, and the changes in the expression of hedonic behavior, such as sweet taste preference, can be used as a more sensitive and translational model to evaluate analgesics.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Ethical guidelines for investigations of experimental pain in conscious animals.

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            Genetics of mouse behavior: interactions with laboratory environment.

            Strains of mice that show characteristic patterns of behavior are critical for research in neurobehavioral genetics. Possible confounding influences of the laboratory environment were studied in several inbred strains and one null mutant by simultaneous testing in three laboratories on a battery of six behaviors. Apparatus, test protocols, and many environmental variables were rigorously equated. Strains differed markedly in all behaviors, and despite standardization, there were systematic differences in behavior across labs. For some tests, the magnitude of genetic differences depended upon the specific testing lab. Thus, experiments characterizing mutants may yield results that are idiosyncratic to a particular laboratory.
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              Chronic mild stress-induced anhedonia: a realistic animal model of depression.

              Chronic sequential administration of a variety of mild stressors causes a decrease in responsiveness to rewards in rats, which is reversed by chronic administration of antidepressant drugs. This paper reviews the validity of chronic mild stress-induced anhedonia as an animal model of depression, and the evidence that changes in hedonic responsiveness in this model are mediated by changes in the sensitivity of dopamine D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens. The review opens with an analysis of the design features of animal models of depression, and ends with a brief account of other animal models of anhedonia.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2015
                06 October 2015
                : 8
                : 663-673
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmacology, Drug Discovery and Preclinical Development, ESTEVE, Barcelona, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Enrique Portillo-Salido, Department of Pharmacology, Drug Discovery and Preclinical Development, ESTEVE, Carrer Baldiri Reixac, 4–8, Parc Científic de Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain, Email eportillo@ 123456esteve.es
                Article
                jpr-8-663
                10.2147/JPR.S91230
                4605237
                © 2015 de la Puente et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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