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      Efecto de una bebida láctea con DHA en la composición de ácidos grasos del glóbulo rojo, de la leche materna y en el recién nacido Translated title: Consumption of a DHA-enriched milk drink by pregnant and lactating women, on the fatty acid composition of red blood cells, breast milk, and in the newborn

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          Abstract

          En Chile el consumo de EPA y DHA es mucho menor a las recomendaciones internacionales. Para mejorar el aporte de omega-3 en el embarazo y lactancia desarrollamos una bebida láctea fortificada con 60 mg de DHA y 14 mg de EPA por 200/ml. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar su efecto en embarazo, parto y recién nacido, composición lipídica de los glóbulos rojos y de la leche materna. Se estudió una cohorte de embarazadas que recibieron dos Kg/mes del nuevo producto (GE n = 175) o la misma cantidad de la leche en polvo que distribuye el Ministerio de Salud (GC n =177). Se analizó consumo de la bebida láctea y otros alimentos fuentes de EPA y DHA y las características del embarazo, parto y recién nacido. En una submuestra de cada grupo se analizó al ingreso y a los 60 días la composición de los ácidos grasos de membranas del glóbulo rojo de la madre y de la leche materna a los 2 meses post parto. El 16 y 53% de la muestra no consumía pescado o mariscos respectivamente y menos del 25% consumía pescado en forma semanal. La intervención aumentó el aporte diario de DHA de 48,8 mg (IC 38,7 - 57,5) a 147,8 mg (IC 128,4 - 167,9) (p < 0,001). El GE tuvo mayores niveles de DHA en los fosfolípidos de la membrana del glóbulo rojo materno: 17,9% (IC 12,9 - 23,0) versus 11,1% (IC10,2 - 13,0) p < 0,002 y aumentó en 50% la concentración de ácidos grasos omega-3 en la leche materna (p 0,06). Se observó menor prevalencia de partos pretérminos en el GE (2,8 vs 10,6%), aunque sin significación estadística. La bebida láctea logró un aumento significativo del consumo de DHA en el embarazo y lactancia y una mejoría de la composición de ácidos grasos en el glóbulo rojo y leche materna, sugiriendo que es una buena estrategia de intervención en esta población.

          Translated abstract

          EPA and DHA consumption in Chile is markedly below international daily intake recommendations. For improvement of such low intake level, we developed a fortified powdered dairy drink, containing 60 mg/serving of DHA and 14 mg/serving of EPA. Objectives: to evaluate the effects of DHA consumption during pregnancy, parturition, and in the newborn, on lipid composition of red blood cell membranes and levels of DHA and EPA on human milk during lactation. One hundred and seventy five (175) pregnant women received 2 kg/month of the fortified powdered dairy drink (GE), and 177 received the regular milk provided by the Ministry of Health (GC). We monitored daily intake of the dairy drink and all other sources of DHA and EPA in the diet, and measured general biological indicators during pregnancy, parturition, and in the new born. On a subsample of 14 women on each group (GE and GC), we measured fatty acid composition of red blood cell membranes after 0 and 60 days of consumption with the fortified dairy drink, and levels of DHA and EPA on human milk after 2 months of lactation. Of all women in the study, 16% had no consumption of fish, and 53% had no consumption of sea food. Less than 25 % of all women had fish on a weekly basis. Consumption of the fortified dairy drink tripled intake of DHA, from 48.8 mg/day (CI 38.7-57.5) to 147.8 mg/day (CI 128.4-167.9) (p<0.001). The GE group had a higher content of DHA on the phospholipids of red blood cell membranes: 11.1% (CI 10.2- 13.0) versus 17.9% (CI 12.9-23.0) (p<0.002). Concentration of DHA and w-3 fatty acids increased 50% in milk of women consuming the fortified dairy drink (p<0.06). There was a lower incidence of preterm parturitions on the GE group (2.8 vs 10.6%), but without statistical significance. The consumption of the fortified dairy drink produced a significant increase of DHA consumption during pregnancy and lactation, and an improved composition of red blood cell membranes, as well as in human milk, proving to be an appropriate intervention strategy for the target population.

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          Docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid concentrations in human breast milk worldwide.

          Concentrations of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) in human breast milk are important indicators of infant formula DHA and AA concentrations, and recent evidence suggests that neural maturation of breastfed infants is linked to breast-milk LCPUFA concentrations. We report a descriptive meta-analysis that considered 106 studies of human breast milk culled to include only studies that used modern analysis methods capable of making accurate estimates of fatty acid (FA) profiles and criteria related to the completeness of reporting. The final analysis included 65 studies of 2474 women. The mean (+/-SD) concentration of DHA in breast milk (by wt) is 0.32 +/- 0.22% (range: 0.06-1.4%) and that of AA is 0.47 +/- 0.13% (range: 0.24-1.0%), which indicates that the DHA concentration in breast milk is lower than and more variable than that of AA. The highest DHA concentrations were primarily in coastal populations and were associated with marine food consumption. The correlation between breast-milk DHA and AA concentrations was significant but low (r = 0.25, P = 0.02), which indicates that the mean ratio of DHA to AA in regional breast milk varies widely. This comprehensive analysis of breast-milk DHA and AA indicates a broad range of these nutrients worldwide and serves as a guide for infant feeding.
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            Dietary fat intakes for pregnant and lactating women.

            , , (2007)
            Dietary fat intake in pregnancy and lactation affects pregnancy outcomes and child growth, development and health. The European Commission charged the research project PERILIP, jointly with the Early Nutrition Programming Project, to develop recommendations on dietary fat intake in pregnancy and lactation. Literature reviews were performed and a consensus conference held with international experts in the field, including representatives of international scientific associations. The adopted conclusions include: dietary fat intake in pregnancy and lactation (energy%) should be as recommended for the general population; pregnant and lactating women should aim to achieve an average dietary intake of at least 200 mg DHA/d; intakes of up to 1 g/d DHA or 2.7 g/d n-3 long-chain PUFA have been used in randomized clinical trials without significant adverse effects; women of childbearing age should aim to consume one to two portions of sea fish per week, including oily fish; intake of the DHA precursor, alpha-linolenic acid, is far less effective with regard to DHA deposition in fetal brain than preformed DHA; intake of fish or other sources of long-chain n-3 fatty acids results in a slightly longer pregnancy duration; dietary inadequacies should be screened for during pregnancy and individual counselling be offered if needed.
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              Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and depressive symptomatology are independent predictors of dementia risk.

              The potential preventive role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in Alzheimer disease has aroused increasing interest. Plasma n-3 PUFAs have been shown to be inversely related to the risk of dementia and to depression, which is frequently associated with dementia. The objective was to ascertain whether plasma PUFAs predict the risk of incident dementia in a cohort of older persons, independently of their depressive status. Of 1214 nondemented participants in the Three-City Study from Bordeaux (France) who were followed up for 4 y, 65 developed dementia. The association between the proportion of plasma fatty acids at baseline and the risk of incident dementia was assessed by multivariate proportional hazard models, taking into account depressive status assessed on the basis of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. A higher plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration was associated with a lower incidence of dementia [hazard ratio (HR) for 1 SD = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.98], independently of depressive status and after adjustment for age, education, apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele, diabetes, and baseline plasma vitamin E and triacylglycerol. The relations between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), total n-3 PUFAs, and incident dementia did not remain significant in multivariate models. Higher ratios of arachidonic acid (AA) to DHA and of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids were related to an increased risk of dementia, particularly in depressive subjects (n = 90): ratio of AA to DHA (HR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.07, 6.56) and ratio of n-6 to n-3 (HR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.47). A high plasma EPA concentration may decrease the risk of dementia, whereas high ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids and of AA to DHA may increase the risk of dementia, especially in depressed older persons. The role of EPA in dementia warrants further research.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
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                Journal
                alan
                Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
                ALAN
                Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (Caracas )
                0004-0622
                September 2009
                : 59
                : 3
                : 271-277
                Article
                S0004-06222009000300007
                04ccaf43-94f8-4563-ad46-a4c9a0acdd44

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0622&lng=en
                Categories
                NUTRITION & DIETETICS

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Pregnancy,lactation,DHA,EPA,fortification,Embarazo,lactancia,omega-3,fortificación
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Pregnancy, lactation, DHA, EPA, fortification, Embarazo, lactancia, omega-3, fortificación

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