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      Precocious deposition of perineuronal nets on Parvalbumin inhibitory neurons transplanted into adult visual cortex

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          Abstract

          The end of the critical period for primary visual cortex (V1) coincides with the deposition of perineuronal nets (PNN) onto Parvalbumin (PV) inhibitory neurons. Recently, we found that transplantation of embryonic inhibitory neurons into adult V1 reinstates a new critical period. Here we used Wisteria Floribunda Agglutinin (WFA) staining to compare the deposition of PNNs onto neurons during normal development and following transplantation at equivalent cell ages. In accord with previous findings, PV and PNN expression increases from negligible levels at postnatal day 14 (P14) to mature levels by P70. In contrast to P14, PNNs are found on transplanted PV neurons by 21 days after transplantation and persist to 105 days after transplantation. This precocious deposition was specific to PV neurons and excluded transplanted neurons expressing Somatostatin. Notably, the onset of PV expression in transplanted inhibitory neurons follows the timing of PV expression in juvenile V1. Moreover, transplantation has no discernible effect on host PNNs. The precocious deposition of PNNs onto transplanted PV neurons suggests that PNN expression identified by WFA does not reflect neuronal maturity and may be an inaccurate marker for transplant-induced plasticity of cortical circuits.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Experience and activity-dependent maturation of perisomatic GABAergic innervation in primary visual cortex during a postnatal critical period.

          The neocortical GABAergic network consists of diverse interneuron cell types that display distinct physiological properties and target their innervations to subcellular compartments of principal neurons. Inhibition directed toward the soma and proximal dendrites is crucial in regulating the output of pyramidal neurons, but the development of perisomatic innervation is poorly understood because of the lack of specific synaptic markers. In the primary visual cortex, for example, it is unknown whether, and to what extent, the formation and maturation of perisomatic synapses are intrinsic to cortical circuits or are regulated by sensory experience. Using bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice that label a defined class of perisomatic synapses with green fluorescent protein, here we show that perisomatic innervation developed during a protracted postnatal period after eye opening. Maturation of perisomatic innervation was significantly retarded by visual deprivation during the third, but not the fifth, postnatal week, implicating an important role for sensory input. To examine the role of cortical intrinsic mechanisms, we developed a method to visualize perisomatic synapses from single basket interneurons in cortical organotypic cultures. Characteristic perisomatic synapses formed through a stereotyped process, involving the extension of distinct terminal branches and proliferation of perisomatic boutons. Neuronal spiking in organotypic cultures was necessary for the proliferation of boutons and the extension, but not the maintenance, of terminal branches. Together, our results suggest that although the formation of perisomatic synapses is intrinsic to the cortex, visual experience can influence the maturation and pattern of perisomatic innervation during a postnatal critical period by modulating the level of neural activity within cortical circuits.
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            Experience-dependent plasticity of binocular responses in the primary visual cortex of the mouse.

            An activity-dependent form of synaptic plasticity underlies the fine tuning of connections in the developing primary visual cortex of mammals such as the cat and monkey. Studies of the effects of manipulations of visual experience during a critical period have demonstrated that a correlation-based competitive process governs this plasticity. The cellular mechanisms underlying this competition, however, are poorly understood. Transgenic and gene-targeting technologies have led to the development of a new category of reagents that have the potential to help answer questions of cellular mechanism, provided that the questions can be studied in a mouse model. The current study attempts to characterize a developmental plasticity in the mouse primary visual cortex and to demonstrate its relevance to that found in higher mammals. We found that 4 d of monocular lid suture at postnatal day 28 (P28) induced a maximal loss of responsiveness of cortical neurons to the deprived eye. These ocular dominance shifts occurred during a well-defined critical period, between P19 and P32. Furthermore, binocular deprivation during this critical period did not decrease visual cortical responses, and alternating monocular deprivation resulted in a decrease in the number of binocularly responsive neurons. Finally, a laminar analysis demonstrated plasticity of both geniculocortical and intracortical connections. These results demonstrate that an activity-dependent, competitive form of synaptic plasticity that obeys correlation-based rules operates in the developing primary visual cortex of the mouse.
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              Experience-dependent transfer of Otx2 homeoprotein into the visual cortex activates postnatal plasticity.

              Neural circuits are shaped by experience in early postnatal life. Distinct GABAergic connections within visual cortex determine the timing of the critical period for rewiring ocular dominance to establish visual acuity. We find that maturation of the parvalbumin (PV)-cell network that controls plasticity onset is regulated by a selective re-expression of the embryonic Otx2 homeoprotein. Visual experience promoted the accumulation of non-cell-autonomous Otx2 in PV-cells, and cortical infusion of exogenous Otx2 accelerated both PV-cell development and critical period timing. Conversely, conditional removal of Otx2 from non-PV cells or from the visual pathway abolished plasticity. Thus, the experience-dependent transfer of a homeoprotein may establish the physiological milieu for postnatal plasticity of a neural circuit.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                sunil.gandhi@uci.edu
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                10 May 2018
                10 May 2018
                2018
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0668 7243, GRID grid.266093.8, Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, , University of California, ; Irvine, CA 92697-4550 USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0668 7243, GRID grid.266093.8, Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, , University of California, ; Irvine, CA 92697-4550 USA
                Article
                25735
                10.1038/s41598-018-25735-8
                5945847
                29748633
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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