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      Clinical Outcomes And Risk Factors In Patients Circumcised By Chinese Shang Ring: A Prospective Study Based On Age And Types Of Penile Disease

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          To explore the efficacy of circumcision with Chinese Shang Ring (CSR) in the different cohorts so that can obtain the best applicable population and manage complications better.


          This study consisted of 657 patients who were circumcised with CSR in our institute between August 2017 and August 2018. All cases were followed up at post-operation for 3 to 15 months. The surgery time (ST), wound healing time (WHT), satisfaction with the appearance of postoperative penis and complications were collected and comparatively analyzed. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the independent risk factors associated with efficacy, which were presented by odd ratios and its 95% confidence index.


          All cases wore the CSR successfully. The ST and WHT respectively were 5.75 ± 2.27 mins and 21.15 ± 5.05 days. The long-term complications, total complications (TC), satisfaction and successful circumcision (SC) respectively were 5.30%, 11.70%, 97.70% and 94.70%. For TC and SC, there was a difference between phimosis and redundant foreskin (21.30% vs 6.20%, P<0.001 and 89.20% vs 97.8%, P<0.001, respectively). In terms of satisfaction and SC, adolescents were higher than children (98.70% vs 94.70%, P=0.035 and 96.80% vs 90.10%, P=0.024, respectively) but was similar to adults (98.70% vs 100.00%, P=0.071 and 96.80% vs 98.00%, P=0.257, respectively). The degree of pain and the incidence of wound dehiscence in adults was higher than adolescents (P<0.05). The phimosis (OR= 1.47, 95% CI=1.26–1.79, P<0.001) and childhood (OR= 1.13, 95% CI =1.06–1.36, P<0.001) were associated with poor efficacy.


          The curative effect of circumcision by CSR in adolescents was similar to adults, both higher than that of children. However, adults have more severe pain and a higher probability of wound dehiscence in the later stage than adolescents. So, adolescence is probably the best time to be circumcised with CSR.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Randomized controlled trial of the shang ring versus conventional surgical techniques for adult male circumcision: safety and acceptability.

          To compare clinical profiles of Shang Ring versus conventional circumcisions. Parallel group open-label randomized controlled trial with one-to-one allocations in 2 sites. We enrolled HIV-negative men aged 18-54 years in Homa Bay, Kenya, and Lusaka, Zambia and followed them at 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 60 days after Shang Ring versus conventional circumcision. We compared the duration of surgery, postoperative pain using a visual analog scale, adverse events rates, time to complete wound healing by clinical assessment, participant acceptability, and provider preferences between circumcision groups. We randomized 200 men to each group; 197 and 201 contributed to the Shang Ring and conventional surgery analyses, respectively. Adverse event rates were similar between groups. Pain scores at most time points were similar, however, the Shang Ring group reported higher scores for worst pain during erections (3.5 ± 1.9 vs. 2.3 ± 1.7; P < 0.001). Significantly more men were satisfied with the cosmetic appearance following Shang Ring male circumcision (MC), 95.7% versus 85.9% (P = 0.02) in Kenya, and 96.8% versus 71.3% (P < 0.01) in Zambia. Although median time to complete wound healing was 43 days in both groups, conventional circumcisions healed on average 5.2 days sooner (P < 0.001). Shang Ring procedures took one-third the time of conventional MC, 7 versus 20 minutes. All circumcision providers preferred the Shang Ring. Safety profiles of the 2 techniques were similar, all MC providers preferred the Shang Ring technique, and study participants preferred the Shang Ring's cosmetic results. The Shang Ring should be considered for adult MC as programs scale-up.
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            The Shang Ring device for adult male circumcision: a proof of concept study in Kenya.

            To assess safety, preliminary efficacy, and acceptability of the Shang Ring, a novel disposable device for adult male circumcision in Kenya. Forty HIV-negative men were recruited in Homa Bay, Kenya. Circumcisions were performed by a trained physician or nurse working with 1 assistant. Follow-up was conducted at 2, 7, 9, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days after circumcision. Rings were removed on day 7. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) (0 = no pain, 10 = worst possible). Men were interviewed at enrollment and on days 7 and 42. All 40 procedures were completed successfully. Mean procedure and device removal times were 4.8 (SD ± 2.0) and 3.9 (SD ± 2.6) minutes, respectively. There were 6 mild adverse events, including 3 penile skin injuries, 2 cases of edema, and 1 infection; all resolved with conservative management. In addition, there were 3 partial ring detachments between days 2-7. None required treatment or early ring removal. Erections with the ring were well tolerated, with a mean pain score of 3.5 (SD ± 2.3). By day 2, 80% of men were back to work. At 42 days, all participants were very satisfied with their circumcision and would recommend the procedure to others. Our results demonstrate that the Shang Ring is safe for further study in Africa. Acceptability of the Shang Ring among participants was excellent. With short procedure times, less surgical skill required, and the ease with which it can be used by nonphysicians, the Shang Ring could facilitate rapid roll-out of male circumcision in sub-Saharan Africa.
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              Clinical application of a new device for minimally invasive circumcision.

              To study the clinical effects of a disposable circumcision device in treatment of male patients of different ages with either phimosis or excess foreskin. One thousand two hundred patients between the age of 5 and 95 years underwent circumcision using this procedure in the 2-year period between October 2005 and September 2007. Of these cases, 904 had excess foreskin and 296 were cases of phimosis. In 96.33% of the cases the incision healed, leaving a minimal amount of the inner foreskin with no scarring and producing good cosmetic results. There were no incidents of device dislocation or damage to the frenulum. The average operative time was 2.5 min for excess foreskin, and 3.5 min for phimosis. During the 7 days of wearing the device, mild to moderate edema occurred in 10.08% of cases with excess foreskin and in 2.58% of those with phimosis. Edema in the frenulum was seen in 1.67% of patients, and only 0.67% had an infection of the incision. A total of 86.25% of patients reported pain due to penile erection. After removal of the device, 0.58% of the cases had minimal bleeding around the incision, and 2.42% had wound dehiscence. The new device can be applied to an overwhelming majority of patients with phimosis and excess foreskin. This technique is relatively simple to perform, and patients who underwent this surgery had very few complications. Antibiotics were not required and patients reported less pain than those who were circumcised using conventional methods. Circumcision with this device requires minimal tissue manipulation, and is quicker and safer than circumcision using conventional techniques. 2008, Asian Journal of Andrology, SIMM and SJTU. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                21 October 2019
                : 15
                : 1233-1241
                [1 ]Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University , Hefei, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]The Institute of Urology, Anhui Medical University , Hefei, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Genitourinary Diseases, Anhui Medical University , Hefei, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Chaozhao Liang Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University , Hefei230022, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 551 6292 3440Fax +86 551 6363 3742 Email liang_chaozhao@ahmu.edu.cn
                © 2019 Wang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 13, Pages: 9
                Original Research


                sizes, chinese shang ring, age, redundant foreskin, phimosis


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